Research Papers

Focused Ion Beam Induced Surface Damage Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Silicon Nanowires

[+] Author and Article Information
Tatsuya Fujii, Shozo Inoue

Division of Mechanical Systems,
Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering,
University of Hyogo,
2167 Shosha, Himeji,
Hyogo 671-2201, Japan

Takahiro Namazu

Associate Professor
Division of Mechanical Systems,
Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering,
University of Hyogo,
2167 Shosha, Himeji,
Hyogo 671-2201, Japan;
Japan Science and Technology Agency,
4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi,
Saitama 332-0012, Japan
e-mail: namazu@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp

Shouichi Sakakihara

The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research,
Osaka University,
8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki,
Osaka 567-0047, Japan

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 24, 2013; final manuscript received May 8, 2013; published online June 10, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Hanchen Huang.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 135(4), 041002 (Jun 10, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-13-1017; doi: 10.1115/1.4024545 History: Received January 24, 2013; Revised May 08, 2013

In this paper, the effect of surface damage induced by focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication on the mechanical properties of silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) was investigated. Uniaxial tensile testing of the NWs was performed using a reusable on-chip tensile test device with 1000 pairs of comb structures working as an electrostatic force actuator, a capacitive displacement sensor, and a force sensor. Si NWs were made from silicon-on-nothing (SON) membranes that were produced by deep reactive ion etching hole fabrication and ultrahigh vacuum annealing. Micro probe manipulation and film deposition functions in a FIB system were used to bond SON membranes to the device's sample stage and then to directly fabricate Si NWs on the device. All the NWs showed brittle fracture in ambient air. The Young's modulus of 57 nm-wide NW was 107.4 GPa, which was increased to 144.2 GPa with increasing the width to 221 nm. The fracture strength ranged from 3.9 GPa to 7.3 GPa. By assuming the thickness of FIB-induced damage layer, the Young's modulus of the layer was estimated to be 96.2 GPa, which was in good agreement with the literature value for amorphous Si.

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Fig. 1

Photographs of the developed reusable on-chip MEMS device for nanoscale uniaxial tensile testing

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Fig. 2

Fabrication process for SON membranes

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Fig. 3

Snapshot of fabrication process for Si NW made from SON membrane

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Fig. 4

Axial elastic strain distribution derived from FEA

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Fig. 5

Relationship between the applied voltage to actuator and the displacement of two capacitive sensors

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Fig. 6

SEM image of fractured Si NW. The NW fractured within the parallel section.

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Fig. 7

Representative tensile stress–strain relations of Si NWs with the width of (a) 57 nm and (b) 217 nm. All the NWs fractured in a brittle manner.

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Fig. 8

Relationships between specimen size parameters and the Young's modulus ((a) width and (b) thickness)

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Fig. 9

Relationship between the ratio of damaged cross-sectional area to whole cross-sectional area, S2/S1+2, and the Young's modulus

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Fig. 10

Relationship between the effective surface area, SE, and the fracture strength



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