Accurate modeling of workpiece material behavior in machining is critical to analyze and design a process. The workpiece material behavior in the machining process involves dynamic flow stress and damage/fracture behavior, which are very difficult to be determined. In this study, the extended split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test is conducted to determine the dynamic flow stress curves of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy, which enables the strain, strain rate and the temperature obtained in the test to approach that in the cutting condition. A damage criterion under the typical stress state of orthogonal cutting is established to reflect the material damage initiation in primary shear zone. The damage criterion parameters of 7075-T651 alloy are determined by comparing the numerical and experimental results of the proposed inner high-pressure piercing fracture test. The orthogonal cutting test and simulation of 7075-T651 alloy are conducted. It is demonstrated that the determined flow stress and the established damage criterion produces realistic process outputs in agreement with experimental results.