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Research Papers

Friction Stir Lap Welding of Aluminum to Steel Using Refractory Metal Pin Tools

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Shamsujjoha

Arbegast Advanced Materials
Processing Laboratory
Department of Materials
and Metallurgical Engineering,
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,
501 East Saint Joseph Street,
Rapid City, SD 57701
e-mail: shams.joha@gmail.com

Bharat K. Jasthi, Michael West

Department of Materials
and Metallurgical Engineering,
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,
501 East Saint Joseph Street,
Rapid City, SD 57701

Christian Widener

Arbegast Advanced Materials
Processing Laboratory,
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,
501 East Saint Joseph Street,
Rapid City, SD 57701

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 4, 2014; final manuscript received January 4, 2015; published online January 30, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Mohammed Zikry.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 137(2), 021009 (Apr 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-14-1176; doi: 10.1115/1.4029571 History: Received September 04, 2014; Revised January 04, 2015; Online January 30, 2015

Steel and Al were friction stir lap welded using two different W-25% Re-4% HfC pin tools, having two different pin diameters and pin lengths. The effects of plunge depth, bonding area, and top sheet positions on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. Morphology of the joint interface showed severe steel flash on the retreating side, which controlled the joint strength when the top sheet was placed on the retreating side. A joint efficiency of 58% was achieved when right-handed lap welds were made using the pin tool with longer pin length.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Tool photographs and schematic of joint design and corresponding plunge depth for (a) pin tool A and (b) pin tool B

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic and (b) photographs of the lap shear specimens

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Fig. 3

Macrographs of the joint interface showing distinctive interface regions for weld made (a) using pin tool A at 15.6 kN, 200 rpm, 1.06 mm/s and (b) using pin tool B at 18.7 kN, 200 rpm, and 1.06 mm/s

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Fig. 4

Close view of the (a) zone A and (b) zone D of the welds made using pin tool A at 15.6 kN, 200 rpm, and 1.06 mm/s

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Fig. 5

Close view of (a) zone B and (b) zone C of the welds made using pin tool A at 15.6 kN, 200 rpm, and 1.06 mm/s

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Fig. 6

EDS analysis of zone C of the welds made using pin tool A at 15.6 kN, 200 rpm, and 1.06 mm/s

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Fig. 7

Interface of welds (zone C) made using pin tool B at 18.7 kN, 200 rpm, and 1.06 mm/s

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Fig. 8

Effect of top sheet positions on lap shear strength for welds made using (a) pin tool A and (b) pin tool B

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Fig. 9

Fracture location of left handed welds made using (a) pin tool A and (b) pin tool B

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Fig. 10

(a) Location of the fracture and (b) microhardness value across the aluminum stir zone for welds made using pin tool A

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Fig. 11

(a) Location of the fracture, (b) fracture interface of Al side, and (c) fracture interface of steel side

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Fig. 12

Dimensional analysis of pin tool A (top) and pin tool B (bottom) before and after welding

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