Research Papers

Strengthening and Improving Yield Asymmetry of Magnesium Alloys by Second Phase Particle Refinement Under the Guidance of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongsheng Li

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Richland, WA 99352
Materials and Processes Engineering,
Pratt & Whitney,
East Hartford, CT 06118
e-mail: dongshengli@gmail.com

Curt Lavender

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Richland, WA 99352

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 12, 2014; final manuscript received March 24, 2015; published online May 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Said Ahzi.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 137(3), 031008 (May 08, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: MATS-14-1054; doi: 10.1115/1.4030356 History: Received March 12, 2014

Improving yield strength and asymmetry is critical to expand applications of magnesium alloys in industry for higher fuel efficiency and lower CO2 production. Grain refinement is an efficient method for strengthening low symmetry magnesium alloys, achievable by precipitate refinement. This study provides guidance on how precipitate engineering will improve mechanical properties through grain refinement. Precipitate refinement for improving yield strengths and asymmetry is simulated quantitatively by coupling a stochastic second phase grain refinement model and a modified polycrystalline crystal viscoplasticity φ-model. Using the stochastic second phase grain refinement model, grain size is quantitatively determined from the precipitate size and volume fraction. Yield strengths, yield asymmetry, and deformation behavior are calculated from the modified φ-model. If the precipitate shape and size remain constant, grain size decreases with increasing precipitate volume fraction. If the precipitate volume fraction is kept constant, grain size decreases with decreasing precipitate size during precipitate refinement. Yield strengths increase and asymmetry approves to one with decreasing grain size, contributed by increasing precipitate volume fraction or decreasing precipitate size.

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Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of: (a) as -cast Mg-2.87Ce, showing fine grain structure [8] and (b) AZ31 after annealed at 600 °C, showing coarse grain structure [9]

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Fig. 2

SEM images of AZ31: (a) before FSP and (b) after FSP [12], showing grain refinement due to SPD

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Fig. 3

Synthetic micrographs of magnesium alloys with precipitates randomly distributed, featuring the same precipitate size and different volume fraction: (a) 1%, (b) 2%, and (c) 8%

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Fig. 4

Evolution of grain size with precipitate volume fraction from one series of micrographs with uniform precipitate size

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Fig. 5

Different synthetic micrographs constructed with the same statistical information of precipitates: volume fraction of 1%, long axis length of 9.8 μm, and short axis length of 3.3 μm

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Fig. 6

Analysis results from five different individual synthetic microstructures for each set of statistical descriptors of a precipitate

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Fig. 7

Evolution of regressed effective grain size with precipitate volume fraction

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Fig. 8

Evolution of variance for regressed effective grain size with precipitate volume fraction

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Fig. 9

Simulated microstructures for the magnesium alloy with the same volume fraction of 1% precipitate but different sizes: precipitate short axis length of: (a) 3.3 μm, (b) 2.3 μm, and (c) 1.5 μm

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Fig. 10

Evolution of grain size with precipitate particle size

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Fig. 11

Evolution of grain size with precipitate volume fraction and size

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Fig. 12

Evolution of yield strengths TYS, CYS, and CYS/TYS asymmetry with grain size in rolled AZ31 sheets simulated using a modified φ-model

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Fig. 13

Evolution of: (a) yield strengths and (b) yield asymmetry with precipitate size when the precipitate volume fractions remain constant

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Fig. 14

Evolution of: (a) yield strengths and (b) yield asymmetry with precipitate volume fraction when the precipitate size is kept constant



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