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Research Papers

Experimental Investigation on Joining Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy 6061 to TRIP 780/800 Steel Through Friction Stir Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Xun Liu, Jun Ni

S.M. Wu Manufacturing Research Center,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Shuhuai Lan

S.M. Wu Manufacturing Research Center,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: lans@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 5, 2014; final manuscript received April 17, 2015; published online May 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Said Ahzi.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 137(4), 041001 (Oct 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MATS-14-1097; doi: 10.1115/1.4030480 History: Received May 05, 2014; Revised April 17, 2015; Online May 11, 2015

Friction stir welding (FSW) technique has been successfully applied to butt joining of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 to one type of advanced high strength steel (AHSS), transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) 780/800 with the highest weld strength reaching 85% of the base aluminum alloy. Mechanical welding forces and temperature were measured under various sets of process parameters and their relationships were investigated, which also helped explain the observed macrostructure of the weld cross section. Compared with FSW of similar aluminum alloys, only one peak of axial force occurred during the plunge stage. Three failure modes were identified during tensile tests of weld specimens, which were further analyzed based on the microstructure of joint cross sections. Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer with appropriate thickness and morphology was shown to be beneficial for enhancing the strength of Al–Fe interface.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the FSW experimental configuration

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Fig. 2

Detailed dimensions of the FSW tool (unit: mm)

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Fig. 3

Typical curves of axial and traverse forces experienced by the FSW tool during the whole process

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Fig. 4

Effects of tool rotational speed and tool offset on the value of axial force Fz during plunge stage: (a) plateau axial force and (b) peak axial force

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Fig. 5

Effects of various process parameters on the axial force Fz during stable welding stage

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Fig. 6

Effects of various process parameters on lateral moving force Fx during stable welding stage

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Fig. 7

Schematic diagram for illustration of the force distribution on FSW tool (side view parallel to the weld line)

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Fig. 8

Thermal history at 1 mm position in Al side under different welding speeds with the rotational speed of 1800 rpm and tool offset of 1.63 mm

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Fig. 9

Typical view of the cross section normal to the weld line (process condition: rotational speed of 1800 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, and tool offset of 1.63 mm)

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Fig. 10

Effect of welding speed on the inclination angle of Al–Fe interface in the advancing side under the same rotational speed of 1200 rpm and tool offset of 1.63 mm: (a) 30 mm/min, (b) 60 mm/min, and (c) 90 mm/min

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Fig. 11

Effects of different welding speed, rotational speed, and tool offset on the inclination angle of Al–Fe interface in the advancing side

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Fig. 12

Defects generated during the FSW process (condition: rotational speed of 1800 rpm, welding speed of 120 mm/min, and tool offset of 1.63 mm)

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Fig. 13

Tensile specimen before and after breakage (process conditions: rotational speed of 1800 rpm, welding speed of 90 mm/min, and tool offset of 1.63 mm)

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Fig. 14

Tensile strength of the weld specimen under different tool offsets and welding speeds (rotational speed: 1200 rpm)

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Fig. 15

Tensile strength of the weld specimen under different tool offsets and welding speeds (rotational speed: 1800 rpm)

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Fig. 16

Specimen broken along the inside boundary of the steel strip (another sample from the process conditions with rotational speed of 1800 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, and tool offset of 1.63 mm)

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Fig. 17

Effects of welding speeds on the size of stirred over steel strip and joint strength under rotational speed of 1200 rpm and tool offset of 1.63 mm: (a) 30 mm/min, (b) 60 mm/min, and (c) 90 mm/min

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Fig. 22

Elemental mapping of the Al–Fe interface at the tip of the stirred over steel strip, which corresponds to position 4 in Fig. 20

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Fig. 21

Elemental mapping of the Al–Fe interface in the advancing side, which corresponds to position 1 in Fig. 20

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Fig. 20

SEM analysis results for the cross section of the fractured necking specimen in Fig. 13

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Fig. 19

SEM analysis results for the cross section shown in Fig. 9

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Fig. 18

Effects of inclination of the stirred over steel strip on joint strength obtained under the same process conditions with the rotational speed of 1800 rpm, welding speed of 120 mm/min and tool offset of 1.03 mm: (a) UTS of 180.8 MPa and (b) UTS of 144.1 MPa

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