0
Research Papers

Synergistic Effects of Fatigue and Marine Environments on Carbon Fiber Vinyl-Ester Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Arash Afshar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
113 LE Building,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: arash.afshar@stonybrook.edu

Maen Alkhader

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
139 LE Building,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: maen.alkhader@stonybrook.edu

Chad S. Korach

Department of Engineering,
University of Mount Union,
1972 Clark Avenue,
Alliance, OH 44601
e-mail: korachcs@mountunion.edu

Fu-Pen Chiang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
105 LE Building,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: fu-pen.chiang@stonybrook.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 3, 2014; final manuscript received April 18, 2015; published online May 20, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Hareesh Tippur.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 137(4), 041002 (Oct 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-14-1187; doi: 10.1115/1.4030481 History: Received October 03, 2014; Revised April 18, 2015; Online May 20, 2015

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites used in the construction of composite-based civil and military marine crafts are often exposed to aggressive elements that include ultraviolet radiation, moisture, and cyclic loadings. With time, these elements can individually and more so cooperatively degrade the mechanical properties and structural integrity of FRP composites. To assist in increasing the long-term reliability of composite marine crafts, this work experimentally investigates the cooperative damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV), moisture, and cyclic loading on the structural integrity of carbon fiber reinforced vinyl-ester marine composite. Results demonstrate that UV and moisture can synergistically interact with fatigue damage mechanisms and accelerate fatigue damage accumulation. For the considered composite, damage and S–N curve models with minimal fitting constants are proposed. The new models are derived by adapting well-known cumulative fatigue damage models to account for the ability of UV and moisture to accelerate fatigue damaging effects.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Galdorisi, G. V., and Truver, S. C., 2010, “The Zumwalt-Class Destroyer: A Technology Bridge, Shaping the Navy After Next,” Naval War College Rev., 63(3), pp. 63–72. https://www.usnwc.edu/getattachment/b2c2029c-00aa-4b81-b0ee-305c22d97170/The-Zumwalt-Class-Destroyer--A-Technology--Bridge-
Korach, C. S., and Chiang, F. P., “Characterization of Carbon Fiber-Vinylester Composites Exposed to Combined UV Radiation and Salt Spray,” 15th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM15), Venice, Italy, June 24–28. http://www.escm.eu.org/eccm15/data/assets/2089.pdf
Mouritz, A., Gellert, E., Burchill, P., and Challis, K., 2001, “Review of Advanced Composite Structures for Naval Ships and Submarines,” Compos. Struct., 53(1), pp. 21–42. [CrossRef]
Thomas, G., Davis, M. R., Holloway, D. S., and Roberts, T., 2006, “The Effect of Slamming and Whipping on the Fatigue Life of a High-Speed Catamaran,” Aust. J. Mech. Eng., 3(2), pp. 165–174. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=461743067962619;res=IELENG
Jiao, G., 1996, “Probabilistic Prediction of Extreme Stress and Fatigue Damage for Ships in Slamming Conditions,” Mar. Corros. Offshore Struct., Pap. Symp., 9(8), pp. 759–785. [CrossRef]
Ying Shan, K. L., 2002, “Environmental Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction of Unidirectional Glasscarbon/Epoxy Hybrid Composites,” Int. J. Fatigue, 24(8), pp. 847–859. [CrossRef]
Vauthier, E., Abry, J. C., Bailliezb, T., and Chateauminois, A., 1998, “Interactions Between Hygrothermal Ageing and Fatigue Damage in Unidirectional Glass/Epoxy Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 58(5), pp. 687–692. [CrossRef]
Mao, H., and Mahadevan, S., 2002, “Fatigue Damage Modelling of Composite Materials,” Compos. Struct., 58(4), pp. 405–410. [CrossRef]
McBagonluri, F., Garcia, K., Hayes, M., Verghese, N., and Lesko, J., 2000, “Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications,” Int. J. Fatigue, 22(1), pp. 53–64. [CrossRef]
Nakamura, T., Singh, R. P., and Vaddadi, P., 2006, “Effects of Environmental Degradation on Flexural Failure Strength of Fiber Reinforced Composites,” Exp. Mech., 46(2), pp. 257–268. [CrossRef]
Du Plessis, H., 2010, Fibreglass Boats: Construction, Gel Coat, Stressing, Blistering, Repair, Maintenance, Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
Almeida, E., Diamantino, T. C., and de Sousa, O., 2007, “Marine Paints: The Particular Case of Antifouling Paints,” Prog. Org. Coat., 59(1), pp. 2–22. [CrossRef]
Talreja, R., 1981, “Fatigue of Composite Materials: Damage Mechanisms and Fatigue-Life Diagrams,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 378(1775), pp. 461–475. [CrossRef]
Reifsnider, K. L., 1991, “Damage and Damage Mechanics,” Fatigue of Composite Materials (Composite Materials Series, Vol. 4), Elsevier, New York, pp. 11–77.
Yang, J. N., Jones, D. L., Yang, S. H., and Meskini, A., 1990, “A Stiffness Degradation Model for Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” J. Compos. Mater., 24(7), pp. 753–769. [CrossRef]
Whitworth, H. A., 1998, “A Stiffness Degradation Model for Composite Laminates Under Fatigue Loading, Composite Structures,” Compos. Struct., 40(2), pp. 95–101. [CrossRef]
Philippidis, T. P., and Vassilopoulos, A. P., 2000, “Fatigue Design Allowables for GRP Laminates Based on Stiffness Degradation Measurements,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 60(15), pp. 2819–2828. [CrossRef]
Van Paepegem, W., and Degrieck, J., 2002, “A New Coupled Approach of Residual Stiffness and Strength for Fatigue of Fibre-Reinforced Composites,” Int. J. Fatigue, 24(7), pp. 747–762. [CrossRef]
Halverson, H. G., Curtin, W. A., and Reifsnider, K. L., 1997, “Fatigue Life of Individual Composite Specimens Based on Intrinsic Fatigue Behavior,” Int. J. Fatigue, 19(5), pp. 369–377. [CrossRef]
Jones, R. H., 2001, Environmental Effects on Engineered Materials, CRC Press, New York.
Wolff, E. G., 1993, “Moisture Effects on Polymer Matrix Composites,” Sampe J., 29(3), pp. 11–19.
Abanilla, M. A., Li, Y., and Karbhari, V. M., 2006, “Durability Characterization of Wet Layup Graphite/Epoxy Composites Used in External Strengthening,” Composites, Part B, 37(2), pp. 200–212. [CrossRef]
Karbhari, V. M., and Abanilla, M. A., 2007, “Design Factors, Reliability, and Durability Prediction of Wet Layup Carbon/Epoxy Used in External Strengthening,” Composites, Part B, 38(1), pp. 10–23. [CrossRef]
Au, C., and Büyüköztürk, O., 2006, “Peel and Shear Fracture Characterization of Debonding in FRP Plated Concrete Affected by Moisture,” J. Compos. Constr., 10(1), pp. 35–47. [CrossRef]
Grace, N. F., and Singh, S., 2005, “Durability Evaluation of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Concrete Beams: Experimental Study and Design,” ACI Struct. J., 102(1), pp. 40–53. [CrossRef]
Hulatt, J., Hollaway, L., and Thorne, A., 2002, “Preliminary Investigations on the Environmental Effects on New Heavyweight Fabrics for Use in Civil Engineering,” Composites, Part B, 33(6), pp. 407–414. [CrossRef]
Liao, K., Schultheisz, C. R., Hunston, D. L., and Brinson, L. C., 1998, “Long-Term Durability of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials for Infrastructure Applications: A Review,” J. Adv. Mater., 30(4), pp. 3–40.
Liau, W., and Tseng, F., 1998, “The Effect of Long-Term Ultraviolet Light Irradiation on Polymer Matrix Composites,” Poly. Compos., 19(4), pp. 440–445. [CrossRef]
Liao, H.-T., 2013, “A Study of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Vinyl Ester Composite Failure Under Combined Effects of UV Radiation & Sea Water Radiation,” M.S. thesis, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, Paper No. 1541705.
Nakamura, T., Singh, R., and Vaddadi, P., 2006, “Effects of Environmental Degradation on Flexural Failure Strength of Fiber Reinforced Composites,” Exp. Mech., 46(2), pp. 257–268. [CrossRef]
McBagonluri, F., Garcia, K., Hayes, M., Verghese, K., and Lesko, J., 2000, “Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications,” Int. J. Fatigue, 22(1), pp. 53–64. [CrossRef]
Kumar, B. G., Singh, R. P., and Nakamura, T., 2002, “Degradation of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites by Ultraviolet Radiation and Condensation,” J. Compos. Mater., 36(24), pp. 2713–2721. [CrossRef]
Korach, C. S., Afshar, A., Liao, H.-T., and Chiang, F.-P., 2014, “Comparison of Sea Water Exposure Environments on the Properties of Carbon Fiber Vinylester Composites,” Society for Experimental Mechanics Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (SEM 2013), Lombard, IL, June 3–5, pp. 139–144. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2000, “Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials,” American Society for Testing and Materials International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. D790-10.
Lemaitre, J., and Chaboche, J.-L., 1990, Mechanics of Solid Materials, Cambridge University Press, London.
Adam, T., Dickson, R. F., Jones, C. J., Reiter, H., and Harris, B., 1986, “A Power Law Fatigue Damage Model for Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Laminates,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 200(3), pp. 155–166. [CrossRef]
Tang, H. C., Nguyen, T., Chuang, T.-J., Chin, J., Wu, F., and Lesko, J., 2000, “Fatigue Model for Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composites,” J. Mater. Civil Eng., 12(2), pp. 97–104. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cyclic stress–strain data for as received specimen loaded at 62% UTS, showing the first five cycles and the last five cycles (prior to failure)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Stiffness (transverse modulus) versus elapsed loading cycles for three as received specimens cyclically loaded at 62% UTS, showing the reasonable level of data scatter associated with identical testing conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Longitudinal stiffness variation with cyclic loading for (a) virgin specimen cyclically loaded at 62% UTS and (b) virgin and aged specimens cyclically loaded at 67% UTS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Transverse stiffness variation with cyclic loading for (a) virgin specimen cyclically loaded at 67% UTS and (b) virgin and aged specimens cyclically loaded at 62% UTS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

SEM micrograph showing the aging induced damage zone due to exposure to UV and moisture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cumulative damage behavior in terms of principal moduli for the virgin specimens

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between the experimental and predicted fatigue behavior of the virgin specimens for (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse directions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

S–N curve for the carbon fiber reinforced vinyl-ester laminate showing a comparison between model predictions and the experimental data for both longitudinal and transverse direction and for (a) the virgin case and (b) the aged case

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In