0
Research Papers

Experimental Assessment of High Damping Rubber Under Combined Compression and Shear

[+] Author and Article Information
Virginio Quaglini

Department of Architecture,
Built Environment and Construction
Engineering A.B.C.,
Politecnico of Milano,
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32,
Milano 20133, Italy
e-mail: virginio.quaglini@polimi.it

Paolo Dubini

Department of Architecture,
Built Environment and Construction
Engineering A.B.C.,
Politecnico of Milano,
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32,
Milano 20133, Italy
e-mail: paolo.dubini@polimi.it

Giacomo Vazzana

Materials Testing Laboratory,
Politecnico of Milano,
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32,
Milano 20133, Italy
e-mail: giacomo.vazzana@polimi.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 6, 2015; final manuscript received August 20, 2015; published online September 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Huiling Duan.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 138(1), 011002 (Sep 24, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MATS-15-1112; doi: 10.1115/1.4031427 History: Received May 06, 2015; Revised August 20, 2015

High damping rubber (HDR) is used in the manufacturing of elastomeric bearings for seismic isolation of building and structures. In practical situations, rubber bearings are subjected to a permanent vertical load which may change at the occurrence of the earthquake, and concurrent shear deformation, due to either service movements of the structure or earthquake-induced ground motion. The study presents an experimental procedure for the assessment of HDR specimens under combined compression and shear, reproducing the same typical load regimes which rubber isolators experience in service. Five commercial HDRs were tested according to the procedure. The results point to the importance of considering the influence of the compression stress for a correct understanding of the behavior of HDRs under cyclic shear.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Taylor, A. W. , Lin, A. N. , and Martin, J. W. , 1992, “ Performance of Elastomers in Isolation Bearings: A Literature Review,” Earthquake Spectra, 8(2), pp. 279–304. [CrossRef]
Skinner, R. I. , Robinson, W. H. , and McVerry, G. H. , 1993, An Introduction to Seismic Isolation, Wiley, New York.
Naeim, F. , and Kelly, J. M. , 1999, Design of Seismic Isolated Structures, Wiley, New York.
Constantinou, M. C. , Whittaker, A. S. , Kalpakidis, Y. , Fenz, D. M. , and Warn, G. P. , 2007, “ Performance of Seismic Isolation Hardware Under Service and Seismic Loading,” Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. MCEER-07-0012.
Itoh, Y. , Gu, H. , Satoh, K. , and Katsuna, Y. , 2006, “ Experimental Investigation on Ageing Behaviors of Rubbers Used for Bridge Bearings,” Struct. Eng./Earthquake Engineering, 23(1), pp. 17s–31s. [CrossRef]
Cole, J. E. , 1979, “ Frequency, Amplitude, and Load Effects on the Dynamic Properties of Elastomers,” Shock Vib. Bull., 49, pp. 105–117.
Cardone, D. , Gesualdi, G. , and Nigro, D. , 2011, “ Effects of Air Temperature on the Cyclic Behavior of Elastomeric Seismic Isolators,” Bull. Earthquake Eng., 9(4), pp. 1227–1255. [CrossRef]
Thompson, A. C. T. , Whittaker, A. S. , Fenves, G. L. , and Mahin, S. A. , 2000, “ Property Modification Factors for Elastomeric Seismic Isolation Bearings,” 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, Oct. 12–17, Paper No. 1307.
Warn, G. P. , 2006, “ The Coupled Horizontal–Vertical Response of Elastomeric and Lead–Rubber Seismic Isolation Bearings,” Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY.
CEN, 2009, “ Anti-Seismic Devices,” European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels, Standard No. EN 15129.
ISO, 2010, “ Elastomeric Seismic–Protection Isolators—Part 1: Test Methods,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Standard No. ISO 22762.
AASHTO, 2014, Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design, 4th ed., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington, DC.
Kelly, J. M. , 1991, “ Dynamic and Failure Characteristics of Bridgestone Isolation Bearings,” Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA, Report No. UCB/EERC-91/04.
Aiken, I. D. , Kelly, J. M. , Clark, P. W. , Tamura, K. , Kikuchi, M. , and Itoh, T. , 1992, “ Experimental Studies of the Mechanical Characteristics of Three Types of Seismic Isolation Bearings,” 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, Spain, July 19–24, pp. 2281–2286.
Kelly, J. M. , 1993, Earthquake-Resistant Design With Rubber, Springer-Verlag, London.
Mori, T. , Moss, P. J. , Cooke, N. , and Carr, A. J. , 1999, “ The Behavior of Bearings Used for Seismic Isolators Under Shear and Axial Load,” Earthquake Spectra, 15(2), pp. 199–224. [CrossRef]
Iizuka, M. , 2000, “ A Macroscopic Model For Predicting Large-Deformation Behaviors of Laminated Rubber Bearings,” Eng. Struct., 22(4), pp. 323–334. [CrossRef]
Ryan, K. L. , Kelly, J. M. , and Chopra, A. K. , 2004, “ Experimental Observation of Axial Load Effects in Isolation Bearings,” 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 1–6, Paper No. 1707.
Abe, M. , Yoshida, J. , and Fujino, Y. , 2004, “ Multiaxial Behaviors of Laminated Rubber Bearings and Their Modeling. I: Experimental Study,” J. Struct. Eng., 130(8), pp. 1119–1132. [CrossRef]
Burtscher, S. L. , and Dorfmann, A. , 2004, “ Compression and Shear Tests of Anisotropic High Damping Rubber Bearings,” Eng. Struct., 26(13), pp. 1979–1991. [CrossRef]
Ahmadi, H. R. , Kingston, J. G. R. , Muhr, A. H. , Gracia, L. A. , and Gómez, B. , 2003, “ Interpretation of the High–Low-Strain Modulus of Filled Rubbers as an Inelastic Effect,” Constitutive Models for Rubber III, J. Busfield , and A. Muhr , eds., Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 357–364.
Gent, A. N. , 1962, “ Relaxation Processes in Vulcanized Rubber. I: Relation Among Stress Relaxation, Creep, Recovery, and Hysteresis,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 6(22), pp. 433–441. [CrossRef]
Gent, A. N. , 1962, “ Relaxation Processes in Vulcanized Rubber. II: Secondary Relaxation Due to Network Breakdown,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 6(22), pp. 442–448. [CrossRef]
Mullins, L. , 1969, “ Softening of Rubber by Deformation,” Rubber Chem. Technol., 42(1), pp. 339–362. [CrossRef]
Bueche, F. , 1960, “ Mechanical Degradation of High Polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 4(10), pp. 101–106. [CrossRef]
Charlton, D. J. , Yang, J. , and Teh, K. K. , 1994, “ A Review of Methods to Characterize Rubber Elastic Behavior for Use in Finite Element Analysis,” Rubber Chem. Technol., 67(3), pp. 481–503. [CrossRef]
Nicholson, D. W. , Nelson, N. W. , Lin, B. , and Farinella, A. , 1998, “ Finite Element Analysis of Hyperelastic Components,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 51(5), pp. 303–320. [CrossRef]
Bonet, J. , and Wood, R. D. , 1997, Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics for Finite Element Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Amin, A. F. M. S. , Wiraguna, S. I. , Bhuiyan, A. R. , and Okui, Y. , 2006, “ Hyperelasticity Model for Finite Element Analysis of Natural and High Damping Rubbers in Compression and Shear,” J. Eng. Mech., 132(1), pp. 54–64. [CrossRef]
Mooney, M. , 1940, “ A Theory of Elastic Deformations,” J. Appl. Phys., 11(9), pp. 582–592. [CrossRef]
Rivlin, R. S. , 1948, “ Large Elastic Deformations of Isotropic Materials, Fundamental Concepts,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 240(882), pp. 459–490. [CrossRef]
Blatz, R. J. , and Ko, W. L. , 1962, “ Application of Finite Elasticity Theory to the Deformation of Rubber Materials,” Trans. Soc. Rheol., 6(1), pp. 223–251. [CrossRef]
Besseling, J. E. , 1983, “ Finite Element Properties Based Upon Elastic Potential Interpolation,” Hybrid and Mixed Finite Element Methods, S. N. Atluri , R. H. Gallagher , and O. C. Zienkiewicz , eds., Wiley, New York, pp. 253–266.
Peng, S. T. J. , and Landel, R. E. , 1972, “ Stored Energy Function of Rubberlike Materials Derived From Simple Tensile Data,” J. Appl. Phys., 43(7), pp. 3063–3067. [CrossRef]
Ogden, R. W. , 1972, “ Large Deformation Isotropic Elasticity: on the Correlation of Theory and Experiment for Incompressible Rubberlike Solids,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 326(1567), pp. 565–584. [CrossRef]
van den Bogert, P. A. J. , and de Borst, R. , 1994, “ On the Behaviour of Rubberlike Materials in Compression and Shear,” Arch. Appl. Mech., 64(2), pp. 136–146. [CrossRef]
Amin, A. F. M. S. , Alam, M. S. , and Okui, Y. , 2002, “ An Improved Hyperelasticity Relation in Modeling Viscoelasticity Response of Natural and High Damping Rubbers in Compression: Experiments, Parameter Identification, and Numerical Verification,” Mech. Mater., 34(2), pp. 75–95. [CrossRef]
ISO, 2005, “ Rubber, Vulcanized or Thermoplastic—Determination of Dynamic Properties—Part 1: General Guidance,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Standard No. ISO 4664-1.
ASTM, 1989, “ Standard Specification for Plain and Steel-Laminated Elastomeric Bearings for Bridges,” American Section of the International Association for Testing Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. D4014-89.
ISO, 2011, “ Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic - Determination of Shear Modulus and Adhesion to Rigid Plates. Quadruple-Shear Methods,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Standard No. ISO 1827.
Smith, L. P. , 1993, The Language of Rubber: An Introduction to the Specification and Testing of Elastomers, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Arditzoglou, Y. J. , Yura, J. A. , and Haines, A. H. , 1995, “ Test Methods for Elastomeric Bearings on Bridges,” The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, Research Report No. 1304-2.
Gent, A. N. , 2001, Engineering With Rubber: How to Design Rubber Components, 2nd ed., Hanser Publishers, Munich, Germany.
Dick, J. S. , 2003, Basic Rubber Testing: Selecting Methods for a Rubber Test Program, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Violaine, T. , Quang Tam, N. , and Christophe, F. , 2015, “ Experimental Study on High Damping Rubber Under Combined Action of Compression and Shear,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 137(1), p. 011007. [CrossRef]
Quaglini, V. , Dubini, P. , and Poggi, C. , 2012, “ Experimental Assessment of Sliding Materials for Seismic Isolation Systems,” Bull. Earthquake Eng., 10(2), pp. 717–740. [CrossRef]
Mullins, L. , 1948, “ Effect of Stretching on the Properties of Rubber,” J. Rubber Res., 16(2), pp. 275–282.
Dorfmann, A. , and Ogden, R. W. , 2004, “ A Constitutive Model for the Mullins Effect With Permanent Set in Particle-Reinforced Rubber,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 41(7), pp. 1855–1878. [CrossRef]
Hamed, G. R. , and Hatfield, S. , 1989, “ On the Role of Bound Rubber in Carbon Black Reinforcement,” Rubber Chem. Technol., 62(1), pp. 143–156. [CrossRef]
Ryan, K. L. , Kelly, J. M. , and Chopra, A. K. , 2005, “ Nonlinear Model for Lead–Rubber Bearings Including Axial-Load Effects,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 30(12), pp. 933–1043.
ISO, 2010, “ Elastomeric Seismic-Protection Isolators—Part 2: Application for Bridges,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Standard No. ISO 22762.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Principle of operation of HDRBs: (a) undeformed configuration in shear, subjected only to the gravity load W of the superstructure and (b) typical deformation produced by seismic actions (FH = shear force, dH = shear displacement)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Typical shear stress–strain diagram of HDR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Sketch of the biaxial testing system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Illustration of HDR test pieces: (a) Type 1 (shape factor S = 5.83) and (b) Type 2 (S = 1.0)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Rubber specimens at the end of the test sequence: (a) Type 1 test piece and (b) Type 2 test piece

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Examples of shear stress–strain curves at different levels of compression stress for a soft, a normal, and a hard HDR. Curves determined at the third cycle of shear for each stress level.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Compression stress–strain curves stress for a soft, a normal and a hard HDR (data points relevant to the pressure steps in the combined compression and shear test protocol)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Influence of compression stress p and number of cycles on shear modulus (left diagrams) and equivalent viscous damping factor (right diagrams): (a) Soft1; (b) Normal2; and (c) Hard1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of shear modulus (a) and equivalent viscous damping factor (b) as a function of the compression stress

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variation of shear modulus (a) and equivalent viscous damping factor (b) as a function of the compression stress: values normalized to the properties at p = 0 MPa

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In