0
Research Papers

Modeling the Creep of Hastelloy X and the Fatigue of 304 Stainless Steel Using the Miller and Walker Unified Viscoplastic Constitutive Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Luis A. Varela

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: Lavarela@miners.utep.edu

Calvin M. Stewart

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 4, 2015; final manuscript received December 13, 2015; published online January 29, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Vadim V. Silberschmidt.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 138(2), 021006 (Jan 29, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: MATS-15-1125; doi: 10.1115/1.4032319 History: Received June 04, 2015; Revised December 13, 2015

Hastelloy X (HX) and 304 stainless steel (304SS) are widely used in the pressure vessel and piping industries, specifically in nuclear and chemical reactors, pipe, and valve applications. Both alloys are favored for their resistance to extreme environments, although the materials exhibit a rate-dependent mechanical behavior. Numerous unified viscoplastic models proposed in literature claim to have the ability to describe the inelastic behavior of these alloys subjected to a variety of boundary conditions; however, typically limited experimental data are used to validate these claims. In this paper, two unified viscoplastic models (Miller and Walker) are experimentally validated for HX subjected to creep and 304SS subjected to strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF). Both constitutive models are coded into ansys Mechanical as user-programmable features. Creep and fatigue behavior are simulated at a broad range of stress levels. The results are compared to an exhaustive database of experimental data to fully validate the capabilities and performance of these models. Material constants are calculated using the recently developed Material Constant Heuristic Optimizer (macho) software. This software uses the simulated annealing algorithm to determine the optimal material constants through the comparison of simulations to a database of experimental data. A qualitative and quantitative discussion is presented to determine the most suitable model to predict the behavior of HX and 304SS.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Totemeier, T. , and Tian, H. , 2006, “ Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in INCONEL 617,” J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 468–470, pp. 81–87.
Cabet, C. , Carroll, L. , and Wright, R. , 2013, “ Low Cycle Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Alloy 617 at High Temperature,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 135(2), p. 061401. [CrossRef]
Tachibana, Y. , and Iyoku, T. , 2004, “ Structural Design of High Temperature Metallic Components,” J. Nucl. Eng. Des., 233(1), pp. 261–272. [CrossRef]
Swaminathan, B. , Abuzaid, W. , Sehitoglu, H. , and Lambros, J. , 2014, “ Investigation Using Digital Image Correlation of Portevin-Le Chatelier in Hastelloy X Under Thermo-Mechanical Loading,” Int. J. Plast., 64, pp. 172–192.
Sakthivel, T. , Laha, K. , Nandagopal, M. , Chandravathi, K. , Parameswaran, P. , Penner Selvi, S. , Mathew, M. , and Mannan, S. , 2012, “ Effect of Temperature and Strain Rate on Serrated Flow Behaviour of Hastelloy X,” J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 534(A), pp. 580–587. [CrossRef]
Aghaie-Khafri, M. , and Golarzi, N. , 2008, “ Forming Behavior and Workability of Hastelloy X Superalloy During Hot Deformation,” J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 486(1–2), pp. 641–647. [CrossRef]
Kim, W. , Yin, S. , Ryu, W. , Chang, J. , and Kim, S. , 2006, “ Tension and Creep Design Stresses of the ‘Hastelloy-X’ Alloy for High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors,” J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 483–484, pp. 495–497.
Kim, W. , Yin, S. , Kim, Y. , and Chang, J. , 2008, “ Creep Characterization of a Ni-Based Hastelloy-X Alloy by Using Theta Projection Method,” J. Eng. Fract. Mech., 75(17), pp. 4985–4995. [CrossRef]
Udoguchi, T. , and Nakanishi, T. , 1981, “ Structural Behaviour of a Welded Superalloy Cylinder With Internal Pressure in a High Temperature Environment,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 9(2), pp. 107–123. [CrossRef]
Miner, R. V. , and Castelli, M. G. , 1992, “ Hardening Mechanisms in a Dynamic Strain Aging Alloy, Hastelloy X, During Isothermal and Thermomechanical Cyclic Deformation,” Int. J. Fatigue, 14(6), pp. 551–561.
Krempl, E ., 1974, “ Cyclic Creep—An Interpretive Literature Survey,” Weld. Res. Counc. Bull., 195, pp. 63–123.
Chang, T. Y. , and Thompson, R. L. , 1994, “ A Computer Program for Predicting Nonlinear Uniaxial Material Responses Using Viscoplastic Models,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA Technical Memorandum No. 83675.
Hartmann, G. , and Kollmann, F. G. , 1987, “ A Computational Comparison of the Inelastic Constitutive Models of Hart and Miller,” Acta Mech., 69(1), pp. 139–165. [CrossRef]
Dombrovsky, L. A. , 1992, “ Incremental Constitutive Equations for Miller and Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic Models,” Comput. Struct., 44(5), pp. 1065–1072. [CrossRef]
Lindholm, U. S. , Chan, K. S. , Bodner, S. R. , Weber, R. M. , Walker, K. P. , and Cassenti, B. N. , 1984, “ Constitutive Modeling for Isotropic Materials,” Nasa Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA Report No. 174718.
James, G. H. , Imbrie, P. K. , Hill, P. S. , Allen, D. H. , and Haisler, W. E. , 1987, “ An Experimental Comparison of Several Current Viscoplastic Constitutive Models at Elevated Temperature,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 109(2), pp. 130–139. [CrossRef]
Chaboche, J. L. , 2008, “ A Review of Some Plasticity and Viscoplasticity Constitutive Theories,” Int. J. Plast., 24(10), pp. 1642–1693. [CrossRef]
Miller, A. K. , 1976, “ An Inelastic Constitutive Model for Monotonic, Cyclic, and Creep Deformation: Part I—Equations Development and Analytical Procedures,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 98(2), pp. 97–105. [CrossRef]
Walker, K. P. , 1981, “ Research and Development Program for Nonlinear Structural Modeling With Advanced Time-Temperature Dependent Constitutive Relationships,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA Report No. 165533.
Haynes International, “ High Performance Alloys Technical Information: Hastelloy X Alloy,” Haynes International Inc., Kokomo, IN, Report No. H-3009C, accessed June 4, 2015, http://www.haynesintl.com/pdf/h3009.pdf
Stewart, C. M. , 2013, “ Mechanical Model of a Gas Turbine Superalloy Subject to Creep-Fatigue,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL.
Miller, A. K. , 1975, “ A Unified Phenomenological Model for the Monotonic, Cyclic, and Creep Deformation of Strongly Work-Hardening Materials,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Miller, A. K. , 1976, “ An Inelastic Constitutive Model for Monotonic, Cyclic, and Creep Deformation: Part II—Application to Type 304 Stainless Steel,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 98(2), pp. 106–113. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Kader, M. S. , El-Hefnawy, N. N. , and Eleiche, A. M. , 1991, “ A Theoretical Comparison of Three Unified Viscoplasticity Theories, and Application to the Uniaxial Behavior of Inconel 718 at 1100°F,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 128(3), pp. 369–381. [CrossRef]
Corana, A. , Marchesi, M. , Martini, A. , and Ridella, S. , 1987, “ Minimizing Multimodal Functions of Continuous Variables With the ‘Simulated Annealing' Algorithm,” ACM Trans. Math. Software, 13(3), pp. 262–280. [CrossRef]
Goffe, W. L. , Ferrier, G. , and Roger, J. , 1994, “ Global Optimization of Statistical Functions With Simulated Annealing,” J. Econ., 60(1–2), pp. 65–100. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

macho material constant optimization process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Objective function evolution during optimization of Miller and Walker for HX creep

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Objective function evolution during optimization of Miller and Walker for 304SS LCF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Miller creep deformation of HX creep at 950 °C [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Miller creep drag stress of HX at 950 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Miller creep rest stress of HX at 950 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Walker creep deformation of HX creep at 950 °C [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Walker creep drag stress of HX at 950 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Walker creep rest stress of HX at 950 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Miller hysteresis loops of 304SS LCF at 600 °C, Δε = 0.005 [21]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Miller hysteresis loops of 304SS LCF at 600 °C, Δε = 0.007 [21]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Walker hysteresis loops of 304SS LCF at 600 °C, Δε = 0.005 [21]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Walker hysteresis loops of 304SS LCF at 600 °C, Δε = 0.007 [21]

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In