Research Papers

Influence of Cerium on the Deformation and Corrosion of Magnesium

[+] Author and Article Information
Sravya Tekumalla

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
9 Engineering Drive 1,
Singapore 117576
e-mail: tvrlsravya@u.nus.edu

Sankaranarayanan Seetharaman

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
9 Engineering Drive 1,
Singapore 117576
e-mail: shreeniwaas@gmail.com

Nguyen Quy Bau

Singapore Institute of Manufacturing
Technology (SIMtech), A*STAR,
71 Nanyang Drive,
Singapore 638075
e-mail: nguyenqb@simtech.a-star.edu.sg

Wai Leong Eugene Wong

School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering,
Newcastle University International Singapore,
180 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8,
Singapore 569830
e-mail: eugene.wong@newcastle.ac.uk

Chwee Sim Goh

ITE Technology Development Centre,
ITE College Central,
2 Ang Mo Kio Drive,
Singapore 567720
e-mail: goh_chwee_sim@ite.edu.sg

Rajashekara Shabadi

Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy
and Materials Engineering,
Unité Matériaux Et Transformations,
UMR CNRS 8207,
Université Lille-1 Sciences et Technologies,
Villeneuve d'Ascq 59650, France
e-mail: Rajashekhara.Shabadi@univ-lille1.fr

Manoj Gupta

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
9 Engineering Drive 1,
Singapore 117576
e-mail: mpegm@nus.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 6, 2015; final manuscript received February 16, 2016; published online May 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Marwan K. Khraisheh.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 138(3), 031011 (May 10, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: MATS-15-1284; doi: 10.1115/1.4033033 History: Received November 06, 2015; Revised February 16, 2016

In this study, a new magnesium (Mg) alloy containing 0.4% Ce was developed using the technique of disintegrated melt deposition followed by hot extrusion. The tensile and compressive properties of the developed Mg–0.4Ce alloy were investigated before and after heat treatment with an intention of understanding the influence of cerium on the deformation and corrosion of magnesium. Interestingly, cerium addition has enhanced the strength (by 182% and 118%) as well as the elongation to failure of Mg (by 93% and 8%) under both tensile and compressive loadings, respectively. After heat treatment, under compression, the Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloy exhibited extensive plastic deformation which was 80% higher than that of the as-extruded condition. Considering the tensile and compressive flow curves, the as-extruded Mg–0.4Ce and the heat treated Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloys exhibited variation in the nature and shape of the curves which indicates a disparity in the tensile and compressive deformation behavior. Hence, these tensile and compressive deformation mechanisms were studied in detail for both as-extruded as well as heat treated alloys with the aid of microstructural characterization techniques (scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), selective area diffraction (SAD), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Furthermore, results of immersion tests of both as-extruded and heat treated alloys revealed an improved corrosion resistance (by ∼3 times in terms of % weight loss) in heat treated state vis-a-vis the as-extruded state.

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Fig. 1

(a)–(c) The optical micrographs of pure Mg, Mg–0.4Ce, and Mg–0.4Ce(S), respectively, with grain sizes in the inset; (d) and (e) represent SEM images of Mg–0.4Ce alloy and Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloy, respectively, (Note the difference in magnification of the images)

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Fig. 2

TEM bright field images of (a) Mg–0.4Ce, (b) Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloy, (c) Mg17Ce2 phase in Mg–0.4Ce alloy with indexed SAD pattern in the inset and (d) Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloy indicating the shape and interface of the precipitates in the matrix with the indexed SAD pattern of Mg41Ce5 in the inset. (Note the difference in magnification of the images). EDS analysis of (e) Mg17Ce2 in Mg–0.4Ce alloy and (f) Mg41Ce5 in Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloy.

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Fig. 3

Engineering stress–strain curve for different materials studied under tensile loads at room temperature

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Fig. 4

Engineering stress–strain curve for different materials studied under compressive loads at room temperature

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Fig. 5

XRD results when the surface exposed to the radiation is (a) perpendicular to the extrusion direction (cross section) and (b) along the extrusion direction (longitudinal section)

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Fig. 6

Tensile fractography images of (a) pure Mg, (b) Mg–0.4Ce alloy, and (c) Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloy

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Fig. 7

Microstructure of Mg–0.4Ce and Mg–0.4Ce(S) alloys, respectively, after CYS (a), (b) and after UCS (c), (d); fracture surface of (e) Mg–0.4Ce and (f) Mg–0.4Ce(S), respectively, (Note the difference in magnification of the images)

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Fig. 8

The optical micrographs of pure Mg, Mg–0.4Ce, and Mg–0.4Ce(S) after 24 hrs (a)–(c); after 48 hrs (d)–(f); after 72 hrs (g)–(i); after 96 hrs (j)–(l), respectively, (Note the difference in magnification of the images)

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Fig. 9

XRD results of corroded Mg–0.4Ce and Mg–0.4Ce(S) after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs

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Fig. 10

Results of immersion tests indicating % weight loss in each material with respect to time



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