Research Papers

Flow Stress and Damage Behavior of C45 Steel Over a Range of Temperatures and Loading Rates

[+] Author and Article Information
Farid H. Abed

Department of Civil Engineering,
American University of Sharjah,
SHJ 26666, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: fabed@aus.edu

Mohammad H. Saffarini

Department of Civil Engineering,
American University of Sharjah,
SHJ 26666, United Arab Emirates

Akrum Abdul-Latif

Département GIM 3 rue de la Râperie,
Université Paris 8 IUT de Tremblay-en-France,
Tremblay-en-France, France

George Z. Voyiadjis

Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA 70802

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 9, 2016; final manuscript received September 9, 2016; published online February 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Taehyo Park.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 139(2), 021012 (Feb 07, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-16-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4035488 History: Received June 09, 2016; Revised September 09, 2016

This research aims to describe the behavior of C45 steel and provide better understanding of the thermomechanical ductile failure that occurs due to accumulation of microcracks and voids along with plastic deformation to enable proper structural design, and hence provide better serviceability. A series of quasi-static tensile tests are conducted on C45 steel at a range of temperatures between 298 K and 923 K for strain rates up to 0.15 s−1. Drop hammer dynamic tests are also performed considering different masses and heights to study the material response at higher strain rates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are taken to quantify the density of microcracks and voids of each fractured specimens, which are needed to define the evolution of internal defects using an energy-based damage model. The coupling effect of damage and plasticity is incorporated to accurately define the constitutive relation that can simulate the different structural responses of this material. Good correlation was observed between the proposed model predictions and experiments particularly at regions where dynamic strain aging (DSA) is not present.

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Fig. 1

Geometry of the tensile test specimens at room temperature with an average width w = 12 mm, thickness t = 10 mm, and gauge length L = 57 mm

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Fig. 2

True stress–true strain curves at room temperature for different strain rates

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Fig. 3

Geometry of the tensile test specimens at high temperatures with an average diameter of 6 mm and gauge length of 39 mm

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Fig. 4

True stress–true strain curves at high temperatures for strain rate of 0.0015 s−1

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Fig. 5

True stress–true strain curves at high temperatures for strain rate of 0.15 s−1

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Fig. 6

Stress variations against temperature for strain rate 0.0015 s−1 at various strain levels

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Fig. 7

Stress variation against temperatures for strain rate 0.15 s−1 at various strain levels

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Fig. 8

Geometry of the drop hammer test specimens

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Fig. 9

True stress–true strain curves for drop hammer test at strain rates of 390 s−1 and 550 s−1

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Fig. 10

SEM images of fractured damaged surfaces at different temperatures for strain rate of 0.15 s−1, (a) T = 298 K, (b) T = 523 K, (c) T = 723 K, and (d) T = 923 K

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Fig. 11

Damage Ф at fracture for each rate of deformation at all temperatures

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Fig. 12

Damage ϕ evolution in the material for different strain rates and temperatures

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Fig. 13

Stress–strain curves at T = 298 K for strain rates of (a) 0.0015 s−1, (b) 0.015 s−1, and (c) 0.15 s−1

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Fig. 14

Stress–strain curves for strain rate 0.0015 s−1 at (a) T = 523 K, (b) T = 723 K, and (c) T = 923 K

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Fig. 15

Stress–strain curves for strain rate 0.15 s−1 at (a) T = 523 K, (b) T = 723 K, and (c) T = 923 K

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Fig. 16

Comparison between experimental results, JC model, and coupled plasticity-damageJC model for (a) strain rate = 0.0015 s−1 at T = 298 K, (b) strain rate = 0.15 s−1 at T = 298 K, (c) strain rate = 0.0015 s−1 at T = 923 K, and (d) strain rate = 0.15 s−1 at T = 923 K



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