0
Research Papers

Energy Harvesting of a Multilayer Piezoelectric Beam in Resonance and Off-Resonance Cases

[+] Author and Article Information
Majid Jabbari

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Isfahan University of Technology,
Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
e-mail: jabbari_nik@yahoo.com

Mostafa Ghayour, Hamid Reza Mirdamadi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Isfahan University of Technology,
Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 29, 2015; final manuscript received January 27, 2017; published online April 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ghatu Subhash.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 139(3), 031008 (Apr 19, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: MATS-15-1201; doi: 10.1115/1.4036241 History: Received August 29, 2015; Revised January 27, 2017

This paper presents to verify the energy harvesting of a nonlinear piezoelectric multilayer beam under harmonic excitation. For getting the perfect performance in energy harvesting, the effect of the energy loss factor, resistive load, and excitation frequency are studied on the results of the power and voltage generated. In this paper, a numerical program is developed with matlab software. Numerical approximation of the nonlinear equations uses a mixed finite element formulation in terms of displacement and potential electrical variables. To verify the numerical results, the experimental results for the energy harvesting of a piezoelectric multilayer beam with harmonic base excitation are used. The multilayer piezoelectric beam (MPB) used consists of two bimorphs in the case of a series connection and a substructure layer of aluminum. For the considered electrical circuit, the piezoelectric energy harvesting model is connected to the resistive load and the generated power in MPB is sent to load resistance. The influence of the type of layer connection on the output voltage value is investigated. The generated voltage and electrical power of the resistive load are verified using the piezoelectric multilayer beam in both resonance and off-resonance cases. According to the results, the maximum value of electric power occurs at the optimum resistive load for the selected frequency value and the behavior of energy harvesting depends greatly on the excitation frequency. Also, the value of the capacitance and resistive load affects the voltage and power generated, and optimum resistance is vital for producing maximum power.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Roundy, S. J. , 2003, “ Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Nodes With a Focus on Vibration to Electricity Conversion,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Roundy, S. , 2005, “ On the Effectiveness of Vibration-Based Energy Harvesting,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 16(10), pp. 809–823. [CrossRef]
Hausler, E. , Stein, L. , and Harbauer, G. , 1984, “ Implantable Physiological Power Supply With PVDF Film,” Ferroelectrics, 60(1), pp. 277–282. [CrossRef]
Erturk, A. , 2009, “ Electromechanical Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters,” Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
Erturk, A. , and Inman, D. J. , 2010, “ Assumed-Modes Formulation of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters: Euler–Bernoulli, Rayleigh, and Timoshenko Models With Axial Deformations,” ASME Paper No. ESDA2010-25200.
Erturk, A. , and Inman, D. J. , 2011, Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Ng, T. H. , and Liao, W. H. , 2005, “ Sensitivity Analysis and Energy Harvesting for a Self-Powered Piezoelectric Sensor,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 16(10), pp. 785–797. [CrossRef]
Lallart, M. , Anton, S. R. , and Inman, D. J. , 2010, “ Frequency Self-Tuning Scheme for Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 21(9), pp. 897–906. [CrossRef]
Lazarus, A. , Thomas, O. , and Deu, J. F. , 2012, “ Finite Element Reduced Order Models for Nonlinear Vibrations of Piezoelectric Layered Beams With Applications to NEMS,” Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 49(1), pp. 35–51. [CrossRef]
Ghayour, M. , and Jabbari, M. , 2013, “ The Effect of Support and Concentrated Mass on the Performance of Piezoelectric Multilayer Beam Actuator and Frequencies,” The 3rd International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration (ISAV2013), Tehran, Iran, Dec. 25–26, Paper No. 3052.
Kogl, M. , and Bucalem, M. L. , 2005, “ Analysis of Smart Laminates Using Piezoelectric MITC Plate and Shell Elements,” Comput. Struct., 83(15–16), pp. 1153–1163. [CrossRef]
Bendigeri, C. , Tomar, R. , Basavaraju, S. , and Arasukumar, K. , 2011, “ Detailed Formulation and Programming Method for Piezoelectric Finite Element,” Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Technol., 7(1), pp. 1–21.
Sebald, G. , Kuwano, H. , and Guyomar, D. , 2011, “ Experimental Duffing Oscillator for Broadband Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting,” Smart Mater. Struct., 20(10), p. 102001. [CrossRef]
Erturk, A. , and Inman, D. J. , 2011, “ Broadband Piezoelectric Power Generation on High-Energy Orbits of the Bistable Duffing Oscillator With Electromechanical Coupling,” J. Sound Vib., 330(10), pp. 2339–2353. [CrossRef]
Friswell, M. I. , Faruque, S. A. , Bilgen, O. , Adhikari, S. , Lees, A. W. , and Litak, G. , 2012, “ Non-Linear Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting From a Vertical Cantilever Beam With Tip Mass,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 23(13), pp. 1505–1521. [CrossRef]
Kaltenbacher, M. , 2010, “ Finite Element Formulation for Ferroelectric Hysteresis of Piezoelectric Materials,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 21(5), pp. 773–785. [CrossRef]
Van de Ende, D. A. , de Almeida, P. , and van der Zwaag, S. , 2007, “ Piezoelectric and Mechanical Properties of Novel Composites of PZT and a Liquid Crystalline Thermosetting Resin,” J. Mater. Sci., 42(15), pp. 6417–6425. [CrossRef]
Brian, P. B. , and Senthil, S. V. , 2005, “ Active Vibration Suppression of Sandwich Beams Using Piezoelectric Shear Actuators: Experiments and Numerical Simulations,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 16(6), pp. 517–530. [CrossRef]
Xu, T. B. , Jiang, X. , and Su, J. , 2011, “ A Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction System,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 98(24), p. 243503. [CrossRef]
Xu, T. B. , Siochi, E. J. , Zuo, L. , Jiang, X. , and Kang, J. H. , 2012, “ Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks,” U.S. Patent No. 0,119,620.
Xu, T. B. , Emilie, J. S. , Kang, J. H. , Zuo, L. , Zhou, W. , Tang, X. , and Jiang, X. , 2013, “ Energy Harvesting Using a PZT Ceramic Multilayer Stack,” Smart Mater. Struct. 22(6), p. 065015. [CrossRef]
Yudong, C. , and Bintang, Y. , 2012, “ Non-Linear Modeling of Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators in Non-Trivial Configurations Based on Actuator Design Parameters and Piezoelectric Material Properties,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 23(8), pp. 875–884. [CrossRef]
Kong, N. , Ha, D. S. , Erturk, A. , and Inman, D. , 2010, “ Resistive Impedance Matching Circuit for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 21(13), pp. 1293–1302. [CrossRef]
Reddy, J. N. , 2007, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Jabbari, M. , Ghayour, M. , and Mirdamadi, H. R. , 2016, “ Experimental and Numerical Results of Dynamics Behavior of a Nonlinear Piezoelectric Beam,” Mech. Adv. Mater. Struct., 23(8), pp. 853–864. [CrossRef]
Xu, T. B. , Tolliver, L. , Jiang, X. , and Su, J. , 2013, “ A Single Crystal Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Multilayer-Stacked Cryogenic Flextensional Actuator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 102(4), p. 042906. [CrossRef]
Cook, R. D. , 1995, Finite Element Analysis for Stress Analysis, Wiley, New York.
Clough, R. W. , and Penzien, J. , 1975, Dynamics of Structures, Wiley, New York.
Cho, Y. , and Mandai, Y. , 1995, “ Dynamic Measurement of Capacitance Variation of Piezoelectric Ceramic With Stress,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. I, 34(3), pp. 1591–1594. [CrossRef]
Schmid, M. , Benes, E. , Burger, W. , and Kravchenko, V. , 1991, “ Motional Capacitance of Layered Piezoelectric Thickness-Mode Resonators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 38(3), pp. 199–206. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Xu, T. B. , Siochi, E. J. , Kang, J. H. , Zuo, L. , Zhou, W. , Tang, X. , and Jiang, X. , 2011, “ A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Multilayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces,” ASME Paper No. DETC 2011-47720.
Fogiel, M. , 1996, The Handbook of Electrical Engineering, Research & Education Association, Piscataway, NJ.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) The electrical circuit of energy harvesting of the MPB with the resistive load and (b) the equivalent circuit of off-resonance case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The behavior of the functions ηRrcr and φRrcrrms/φ0 versus the energy loss factor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The MPB in the cantilevered condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Three different cases for the harvesting circuit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The experimental setup schematics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The experimental equipment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The FRF response of the piezoelectric multilayer beam in case C-1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The voltage response of the piezoelectric multilayer beam in the frequency 300 Hz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The optimum resistance versus the energy loss factor for frequency of 300 Hz and the capacitance of 16 × 10−9 F

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The value of Prrms/φ02 with the change of the resistive load for frequency of 300 Hz in open circuit condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The behavior of φrrms/φ0 versus the frequency in different resistive loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The generated electrical powers versus capacitance for different resistive loads in the frequency of 300 Hz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The generated voltage versus frequency for different resistive loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The generated powers in the off-resonance mode for different resistive loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The power ratio versus frequency

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In