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Research Papers

Residual Stress From Cold Expansion of Fastener Holes: Measurement, Eigenstrain, and Process Finite Element Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Renan L. Ribeiro, Michael R. Hill

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of California,
One Shields Avenue,
Davis, CA 95616

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 31, 2017; final manuscript received May 8, 2017; published online July 6, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Curt Bronkhorst.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 139(4), 041012 (Jul 06, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1032; doi: 10.1115/1.4037021 History: Received January 31, 2017; Revised May 08, 2017

Cold expansion (CX) is a material processing technique that has been widely used in the aircraft industry to enhance fatigue life of structural components containing holes. CX introduces compressive hoop residual stresses that slow crack growth near the hole edge. The objective of this paper is to predict residual stresses arising from cold expansion using two different finite element (FE) approaches, and compare the results to measurement data obtained by the contour method. The paper considers single-hole, double-hole, and triple-hole configurations with three different edge margins. The first FE approach considers process modeling, and includes elastic–plastic behavior, while the second approach is based on the eigenstrain method, and includes only elastic behavior. The results obtained from the FE models are in good agreement with one another, and with measurement data, especially close to the holes, and with respect to the effect of edge margin on the residual stress distributions. The distribution of the residual stress and equivalent plastic strain around the holes is also explored, and the results are discussed in detail. The eigenstrain method was found to be very useful, providing generally accurate predictions of residual stress.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Split-sleeve cold expansion process (from Ref. [1])

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Fig. 2

Sample configurations and measurement plane used in Ref. [20] (dimensions in millimeters; two- and three-hole configurations shown with e/D = 1.2)

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Fig. 3

Hoop residual stress measured by the contour method in samples with two holes [20] (a) inward from hole and (b) outward from hole

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Fig. 4

Hoop residual stress measured by the contour method in three-hole configuration [20]

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Fig. 5

(a) Initial flow curve for 2024-T351 and (b) resulting hoop residual stress (σθθ)

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Fig. 6

Single-hole FE model and boundary conditions (hatches represent symmetry boundary conditions)

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Fig. 7

(a) Flow curves tested and (b) resulting hoop residual stress (σθθ). Note: log scale on x/R.

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Fig. 8

(a) Eigenstrain distribution obtained with inverse method and (b) resulting hoop residual stress (σθθ)

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Fig. 9

Hoop residual stress for two-hole samples (a) inward from holes (e/D = 2.0), (b) outward from holes (e/D = 2.0), (c) inward from holes (e/D = 1.5), (d) outward from holes (e/D = 1.5), (e) inward from holes (e/D = 1.2), and (f) outward from holes (e/D = 1.2)

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Fig. 10

Hoop residual stress from three-hole configuration, e/D = 1.2 (a) center hole toward outer holes, (b) inward from outer holes, and (c) outward from outer holes

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Fig. 11

Equivalent plastic strain in two-hole samples for all edge margins (a) inward from hole and (b) outward from hole

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Fig. 12

Hoop residual stress from two-hole configurations for varying angular position from (a) eigenstrain FE model (e/D = 2.0), (b) elastic–plastic FE model (e/D = 2.0), (c) eigenstrain FE model (e/D = 1.5), (d) elastic–plastic FE model (e/D = 1.5), (e) eigenstrain FE model (e/D = 1.2), and (f) elastic–plastic FE model (e/D = 1.2)

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Fig. 13

Equivalent plastic strain from two-hole elastic–plastic FE model for varying angular positions (a) e/D = 2.0, (b) e/D = 1.5, and (c) e/D = 1.2

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Fig. 14

Hoop residual stress from three-hole configuration for varying angular position from (a) outer hole from eigenstrain FE model, (b) outer hole from elastic–plastic FE model, (c) center hole from eigenstrain FE model, and (d) center hole from elastic–plastic FE model

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Fig. 15

Equivalent plastic strain from three-hole configuration for varying angular position from (a) center hole and (b) outer hole

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Fig. 16

Stress triaxiality versus hole expansion at different locations from single-hole elastic–plastic model with final flow curve

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Fig. 17

Flow curves corrected by triaxiality values

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Fig. 18

(a) Final and secondary flow curves and (b) resulting hoop residual stress

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Fig. 19

Hoop stress evolution during the CX process considering the final and secondary flow curves at (a) x/R = 1, (b) x/R = 1.5, and (c) x/R = 6

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