Research Papers

Failure Modes in Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates

[+] Author and Article Information
Johannes Reiner

Department of Civil Engineering,
University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
e-mail: Hannes.Reiner@composites.ubc.ca

Martin Veidt

School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering,
The University of Queensland,
Brisbane 4072, Queensland, Australia
e-mail: m.veidt@uq.edu.au

Matthew Dargusch

School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering,
The University of Queensland,
Brisbane 4072, Queensland, Australia
e-mail: m.dargusch@uq.edu.au

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 27, 2017; final manuscript received June 21, 2017; published online August 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Erdogan Madenci.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(1), 011005 (Aug 09, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1024; doi: 10.1115/1.4037273 History: Received January 27, 2017; Revised June 21, 2017

Hybrid titanium composite laminates (HTCLs) combine the benefits of thin titanium sheets and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminates to design high performance light-weight materials with optimized impact resistance, fracture toughness, durability, and/or thermal performance. This paper starts with a detailed review of typical failure modes observed in HTCLs. The critical manufacturing process of thin grade II titanium sheets combined with HexPly G947/M18 carbon fiber-reinforced polymer laminates is described in detail. This includes the evaluation of titanium surface preparation techniques, which guarantee good adhesive bonding. A systematic experimental study of different HTCL configurations under tensile loading confirms that the major failure modes are debonding between the titanium sheet and the FRP laminate, matrix cracking in the 90 deg plies of the FRP laminate and interlaminar delamination. The results show that HTCLs made from woven carbon FRP plies show higher ultimate strengths and strain at breaks than HTCLs containing a cross-ply composite core made from unidirectional (UD) prepreg.

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Fig. 1

Structural aerospace applications of HTCLs: (a) illustration of an HTCL consisting of FRP core with protecting outer titanium sheets [2] and (b) schematic composite bolted joint with local metal reinforcement [17]

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Fig. 2

Cross-sectional failure inspection of [0/45/Ti/−45/90]s HTCL, adapted from Ref. [39]. Buckling induced debonding, interlaminar delamination, and matrix cracking are major failure modes.

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Fig. 3

Failure inspection of open hole [Ti/0/90/02]s HTCL subjected to cyclic tension–compression at elevated temperature, adapted from [2]: (a) splitting in outer 0 deg ply inducing debonding and (b) transverse ply cracking in 90 deg plies inducing interlaminar delamination

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Fig. 4

Failure modes in HTCLs subjected to flexural and impact loading: (a) flexural test on [Ti/0/90/02]s HTCL, adapted from [40], (b) failure modes in impacted [Ti/03/903]s HTCL [41], and (c) failure due to low velocity impact in [Ti/0/90]s HTCL [24]

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Fig. 5

Manufacture of HTCL samples: (a) macroroughened titanium plates, (b) NaOH anodization of titanium plates, (c) anodized plates, and (d) cured HTCL samples

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Fig. 6

Comparison of true stress–strain results of unidirectional [Ti/0/90]s and woven [Ti/(0 90)/(0 90)]s HTCLs

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Fig. 7

Strain measurements on either side of HTCL. Circles indicate percentage of ultimate tensile strength: (a) unidirectional [Ti/0/90]s and (b) woven [Ti/(0 90)/(0 90)]s.

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Fig. 8

Failure inspection on the mesoscale of two HTCL types at various load levels: (a) unidirectional [Ti/0/90]s and (b) woven [Ti/(0 90)/(0 90)]s



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