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Research Papers

First-Principles Investigation of Intergranular Fracture in Copper by Grain Boundary Segregation of Sulfur

[+] Author and Article Information
Xudong Wang

LISV,
Université de Versailles
Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines,
45 Avenue des Etats-Unis,
Versailles 78035, France
e-mail: xudong.wang2@uvsq.fr

Lahouari Benabou

LISV,
Université de Versailles
Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines,
45 Avenue des Etats-Unis,
Versailles 78035, France
e-mail: lahouari.benabou@uvsq.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 2, 2017; final manuscript received June 21, 2017; published online August 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Peter W. Chung.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(1), 011008 (Aug 09, 2017) (5 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1064; doi: 10.1115/1.4037274 History: Received March 02, 2017; Revised June 21, 2017

Grain boundary (GB) embrittlement by sulfur in fcc CuΣ5(012)[100] symmetrical tilt grain boundary (STGB) is simulated by first-principles calculations. The surface and grain boundary segregation energies are estimated by progressively placing solute atoms in the potential segregation sites in the boundaries. Based on the calculated segregation energies, the cohesive energy of the grain boundary is evaluated as a function of the sulfur atoms concentration. It is found that, when a two atomic layers’ concentration is attained, the cohesive energy is reduced by one order of magnitude compared to its value for the clean grain boundary.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Structure of Cu Σ5(012)[100] STGB, and (b) GB energy with respect to misorientation angle for [100] and [110] STGBs in Cu (Reprinted with permission from Tschopp et al. [12]. Copyright 2015 by Springer.)

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Fig. 2

(a) GB unit cell of fcc Cu Σ5(012)[100] STGB containing 68 Cu atoms (yellow balls indicate S atoms when inserted in the GB vacancies at sites 0). The c-axis of the cell is 2.34 nm. (b) Top view of the fractured surface at the GB. The area of the GB plane, A, is 0.584 nm2.

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Fig. 3

Segregation energy for one S atom at various segregation sites in the unit cell of Cu. Sites 0, 1, 2 are GB sites, and sites 9 and 10 are surface sites (inner bulk sites, which are less favorable, are not shown).

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Fig. 4

McLean’s equation Cgb=Cbulk exp (−ΔEseg/RT)/[1+Cbulk exp (−ΔEseg/RT)] plotted at 200 °C for bulk solute concentration varying from 1 to 10,000 at ppm

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Fig. 5

Total and average segregation energy for the (a) GB and (b) free surface of Cu. The total segregation energy is normalized by the area of the GB.

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Fig. 6

Calculated cohesive energy of Cu Σ5 GB with respect to the amount of solute atoms segregating at the GB (comparison with data on Ni Σ5 GB)

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