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Research Papers

Micro-Computed Tomography as a Tool to Investigate the Deformation Behavior of Particulate-Filled Composite Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
Kenan Cinar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Namik Kemal University,
Tekirdag 59860, Turkey;
Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
Virginia Commonwealth University,
Richmond, VA 23284
e-mail: kcinar@nku.edu.tr

Ibrahim Guven

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
Virginia Commonwealth University,
Richmond, VA 23284
e-mail: iguven@vcu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 13, 2017; final manuscript received July 31, 2017; published online September 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hareesh Tippur.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(2), 021001 (Sep 13, 2017) (18 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1073; doi: 10.1115/1.4037658 History: Received March 13, 2017; Revised July 31, 2017

Micro-computed tomography (CT) was used as a tool to investigate the deformation behavior of particulate-filled composite materials. Three different shapes of glass fillers (spherical, flake, and fiber) and filler mass fractions (5%, 10%, and 15%) were introduced to the epoxy resin. Rockwell hardness H scale indentation test was used to deform the composite material. The composite materials were scanned before and after the indentation test by using micro-CT. Displacement field for each filler type and mass fraction were measured through correlation of before and after scan data. The effects of filler type and mass fraction on the internal displacement field were investigated. It was also demonstrated that micro-CT can be used as a tool to create realistic representative volume elements (RVEs) for particulate-filled composite materials instead of randomly distributed particles within the matrix material.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Spherical fillers, (b) flake fillers, and (c) rod fillers

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Fig. 2

Filler mass fraction versus global threshold value

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Fig. 3

Top row: 5% spherical, middle row: 5% flake, and bottom row: 5% fiber mass fraction. Columns: (a) grayscale image, (b) gray-level histograms with global threshold values identified, and (c) resulting binary images.

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Fig. 4

Hardness (left) and micro-CT (right) test samples

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Fig. 5

Experimental and postprocessing steps for composite with 5% spherical glass filler. (a) Grayscale image (grays converted to red on-screen for better visibility), (b) binary image, (c) randomly selected subvolume from the binary image, and (d) voxel representation of spherical fillers in the subvolume.

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Fig. 6

Experimental and postprocessing steps for composite with 5% glass flake filler. (a) Grayscale image (grays converted to red on-screen for better visibility), (b) binary image, (c) randomly selected subvolume from the binary image, and (d) voxel representation of flake fillers in the subvolume.

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Fig. 7

Experimental and postprocessing steps for composite with 5% glass fiber filler. (a) Grayscale image (grays converted to red on-screen for better visibility), (b) binary image, (c) randomly selected subvolume from the binary image, and (d) voxel representation of fiber fillers in the subvolume.

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Fig. 8

Hardness values for neat epoxy and the particulate composites

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Fig. 9

Undeformed (left column) and postindentation (right column) micro-CT images for samples with 5% spherical (top row), flake (middle row), and fiber (bottom row) fillers

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Fig. 10

Deformation patterns due to indentation along vertical planes passing through the centers of samples with 5% mass ratio for spherical (top), flake (middle), and fiber (bottom) fillers

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Fig. 11

(a) Displacement field in z-direction (in voxel scale), normal strain fields (b) in z-direction (c) and in x-direction, and (d) shear strain field in yz-direction, plotted along a vertical plane passing through the center of indentation of samples with 5% mass ratio spherical fillers

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Fig. 12

(a) Displacement field in z-direction (in voxel scale), normal strain fields (b) in z-direction (c) and in x-direction, and (d) shear strain field in yz-direction, plotted along a vertical plane passing through the center of indentation of samples with 5% mass ratio flake fillers

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Fig. 13

(a) Displacement field in z-direction (in voxel scale), normal strain fields (b) in z-direction (c) and in x-direction, and (d) shear strain field in yz-direction, plotted along a vertical plane passing through the center of indentation of samples with 5% mass ratio fiber fillers

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Fig. 14

Displacement field in z-direction plotted along a vertical plane passing through the center of indentation of samples. (a) Set 1 samples and (b) set 2 samples.

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Fig. 15

Displacement in z-direction through the thickness of the samples for: (a) 5%, (b) 10%, and (c) 15% filler mass fraction

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Fig. 16

Displacements in z-direction along y-axis, at different depths, comparison of spherical, flake, and fiber fillers, for mass fractions: (a) 5%, (b) 10%, and (c) 15%

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Fig. 17

Displacements in z-direction along y-axis, at different depths, comparison of 5%, 10%, and 15% mass fractions, for: (a) spherical, (b) flake, and (c) fiber fillers

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Fig. 18

Normal strain field in z-direction plotted along a vertical plane passing through the center of indentation of set 1 samples

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Fig. 19

Shear strain field evaluated at a vertical plane passing through the center of indentation of samples. (a) Set 1 samples and (b) set 2 samples.

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Fig. 20

Normal strain field in x-direction plotted along a vertical plane passing through the center of indentation of samples. (a) Set 1 samples and (b) set 2 samples.

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Fig. 21

Strain field in z-direction plotted along xz- and yz-planes passing through the center of indentation for 15% mass filler ratio for set 2 samples

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