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Research Papers

Hot Deformation Behavior of Four Steels: A Comparative Study

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Menapace

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Trento,
via Sommarive 9,
Trento 38123, Italy
e-mail: cinzia.menapace@unitn.it

N. Sartori

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Trento,
via Sommarive 9,
Trento 38123, Italy
e-mail: n.sartori@danieli.it

M. Pellizzari, G. Straffelini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Trento,
via Sommarive 9,
Trento 38123, Italy

1Present address: Danieli & C Spa, via Nazionale 41, Buttrio 33042, Udine, Italy.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 14, 2016; final manuscript received September 18, 2017; published online January 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ashraf Bastawros.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(2), 021006 (Jan 19, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MATS-16-1265; doi: 10.1115/1.4038670 History: Received September 14, 2016; Revised September 18, 2017

The hot deformation behavior of four different steels in the as-cast condition was investigated by means of hot compression tests conducted at temperatures ranging from 1100 °C up to 1200 °C, and at strain rates in between 0.12 and 2.4 s−1. The primary focus of this work was to check the possibility to increase the strain rate during the rough preliminary working of the ingots, i.e., to adopt a rough rolling process in place of the more conventional rough forging. The second aim of the research was to study the influence of the different characteristics of these steels in their as-cast conditions on their hot deformation behavior. It was seen that in all deformation conditions, the stress–strain compression curves show a single peak, indicating the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The hot deformation behavior was studied in both the condition of dynamic recovery (DRV), modeling the stress–strain curves in the initial stage of deformation, and DRX. Data of modeling were satisfactorily employed to estimate the flow stress under different conditions of temperature and strain rate. The experimental values of the activation energy for hot deformation, QHW, were determined and correlated to the chemical composition of the steels; a power law curve was found to describe the relation of QHW and the total amount of substitutional elements of the steels. The critical strain for DRX, εc, was determined as a function of the Zener–Hollomon parameter and correlated to the peak strain, εp. A ratio εcp in the range 0.45–0.65 was found, which is in agreement with literature data. All this information is crucial for a correct design of the rough deformation process of the produced ingots.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Typical stress–strain curve during hot deformation of steel in the austenitic condition [5]

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Fig. 2

Microstructures of the four steels in the as-cast condition (Nital etching)

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Fig. 3

Thermal cycle used for the compression tests

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Fig. 4

True stress–true strain curves of steel A deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

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Fig. 5

True stress–true strain curves of steel B deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

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Fig. 6

True stress–true strain curves of steel C deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

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Fig. 7

True stress–true strain curves of steel D deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

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Fig. 8

(a) log (/dt) versus log(sinh(ασ)) used for determination of n, (b) log(sinh(ασ) versus 1/T used for the determination of QHW, and (c) log(sinh(ασ) versus logZ used for the determination of A

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Fig. 9

Effect of the amount of substitutional alloying elements %s on QHW

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Fig. 16

εc/D0p versus Zener–Hollomon parameter (Z) of the four steels (p = 0.3)

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Fig. 14

Steel D after only the thermal cycle at 1100 °C (a) and after hot compression at the same temperature (b)

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Fig. 13

Application of the DRV model at higher temperature and strain rates

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Fig. 12

σ0 (a) and Ω (b) as function of Zener–Hollomon parameter

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Fig. 11

Comparison between the experimental data and the model of DRV for steel D, hot compressed at 1150 °C

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Fig. 10

Linear extrapolation of θσ curves for determining σDRVssfor steel D at strain rate 2.4 s−1

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