Research Papers

Hot Deformation Behavior of Four Steels: A Comparative Study

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Menapace

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Trento,
via Sommarive 9,
Trento 38123, Italy
e-mail: cinzia.menapace@unitn.it

N. Sartori

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Trento,
via Sommarive 9,
Trento 38123, Italy
e-mail: n.sartori@danieli.it

M. Pellizzari, G. Straffelini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Trento,
via Sommarive 9,
Trento 38123, Italy

1Present address: Danieli & C Spa, via Nazionale 41, Buttrio 33042, Udine, Italy.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 14, 2016; final manuscript received September 18, 2017; published online January 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ashraf Bastawros.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(2), 021006 (Jan 19, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MATS-16-1265; doi: 10.1115/1.4038670 History: Received September 14, 2016; Revised September 18, 2017

The hot deformation behavior of four different steels in the as-cast condition was investigated by means of hot compression tests conducted at temperatures ranging from 1100 °C up to 1200 °C, and at strain rates in between 0.12 and 2.4 s−1. The primary focus of this work was to check the possibility to increase the strain rate during the rough preliminary working of the ingots, i.e., to adopt a rough rolling process in place of the more conventional rough forging. The second aim of the research was to study the influence of the different characteristics of these steels in their as-cast conditions on their hot deformation behavior. It was seen that in all deformation conditions, the stress–strain compression curves show a single peak, indicating the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The hot deformation behavior was studied in both the condition of dynamic recovery (DRV), modeling the stress–strain curves in the initial stage of deformation, and DRX. Data of modeling were satisfactorily employed to estimate the flow stress under different conditions of temperature and strain rate. The experimental values of the activation energy for hot deformation, QHW, were determined and correlated to the chemical composition of the steels; a power law curve was found to describe the relation of QHW and the total amount of substitutional elements of the steels. The critical strain for DRX, εc, was determined as a function of the Zener–Hollomon parameter and correlated to the peak strain, εp. A ratio εcp in the range 0.45–0.65 was found, which is in agreement with literature data. All this information is crucial for a correct design of the rough deformation process of the produced ingots.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dieter, G. E. , and Kuhn, H. A. , 2003, Handbook of Workability and Process Design, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Moreira, A. , and Balancin, O. , 2005, “ Prediction of Steel Flow Stresses Under Hot Working Condition,” Mater. Res., 8(3), pp. 309–315. [CrossRef]
Farag, M. M. , Sellars, C. M. , and Tegart, W. J. M. G. , 1968, Deformation During Hot Working Conditions, Iron and Steel Institute, London, pp. 60–67.
Baktash, R. , and Mirzadeh, H. , 2016, “ A Simple Constitutive Model for Prediction of Single-Peak Flow Curves Under Hot Working Conditions,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 138(2), p. 021004. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. C. , and Chen, X. M. , 2011, “ A Critical Review of Experimental Result and Constitutive Description for Metals and Alloys in Hot Working,” Mater. Des., 32(4), pp. 1733–1759. [CrossRef]
Laasraoui, A. , and Jonas, J. J. , 1991, “ Prediction of Steel Flow Stresses at High Temperatures and Strain Rates,” Metall. Trans. A, 22(7), pp. 1545–1558. [CrossRef]
Poliak, E. I. , and Jonas, J. J. , 1996, “ A One Parameter Approach to Determining the Critical Conditions for the Initiation of Dynamic Recrystallization,” Acta Mater., 44(1), pp. 127–136. [CrossRef]
Sellars, C. M. , 1990, “ Modelling Microstructural Development During Hot Rolling,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 6(11), pp. 1072–1081. [CrossRef]
Sellars, C. M. , 1980, Hot Working and Forming Processes, C. M. Sellars and G. J. Davies , eds., The Metals Society, London.
Sellars, C. M. , and Whiteman, J. A. , 1979, “ Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Hot Rolling,” Mater. Sci., 13(3–4), pp. 187–194.
Cohen, R. E. , and Durham, D. R. , 1990, “ Microstructure as a Criterion for the Selection of Hot Working Process Parameters for Plain Medium Carbon Steel,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 112(1), pp. 90–94. [CrossRef]
McQueen, H. J. , and Ryan, N. D. , 2002, “ Constitutive Analysis in Hot Working,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 322(1–2), pp. 43–63. [CrossRef]
Sellars, C. M. , and McTegart, W. , 1966, “ On the Mechanism of Hot Deformation,” Acta Metall., 14(9), pp. 1136–1138. [CrossRef]
Humphreys, F. J. , and Haterly, M. , 1995, Recrystallization and Related Phenomena, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
McQueen, H. J. , 2004, “ Development of Dynamic Recrystallization Theory,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 387–389, pp. 203–208. [CrossRef]
Abbasi, S. M. , and Shokuhfar, A. , 2007, “ Prediction of Hot Deformation Behavior of 10Cr-10Ni-5Mo-2Cu Steel,” Mater. Lett., 61(11–12), pp. 2523–2526. [CrossRef]
Wray, P. J. , 1984, “ Effect of Composition and Initial Grain Size on the Dynamic Recrystallization of Austenite in Plain Carbon Steels,” Metall. Trans. A, 15(11), pp. 2009–2019. [CrossRef]
Wray, P. J. , 1982, “ Effect of Carbon Content on the Plastic Flow of Plain Carbon Steels at Elevated Temperatures,” Metall. Trans. A, 13(1), pp. 125–134. [CrossRef]
Collinson, D. C. , Hodgson, P. D. , and Paker, B. A. , 1993, The Deformation and Recrystallisation Behaviour of Austenite During Hot Rolling, J. J. Jonas , T. R. Bieler , and K. J. Bowman , eds., TMS Mass, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 41–58.
Shida, S. , 1969, “ Empirical Formula of Flow Stress of Carbon Steels: Resistance to Deformation of Carbon Steels at Elevated Temperature,” Jpn. Soc. Technol. Plast., 10(103), pp. 610–617.
Dixon, T. J. , Sellars, C. M. , and Whiteman, J. A. , 1996, “ The Effect of Carbon Content During Hot Deformation of Austenite,” 37th Mechanical Working and Steel Processing Conference, Hamilton, ON, Canada, Oct. 22–25, pp. 705–710.
Jaipal, J. , Davies, C. H. J. , Wynne, B. P. , Collinson, D. C. , Brownrigg, A. , and Hodgson, P. D. , 1997, “ Effect of Carbon Content on the Hot Flow Stress and Dynamic Recrystallisation Behaviour of Plain Carbon Steels,” International Conference on Thermomechanical Processing of Steels and Other Materials, Wollongong , Australia, July 7–11, pp. 539–545.
Chen, M. S. , Lin, Y. C. , and Ma, X. S. , 2012, “ The Kinetics of Dynamic Recrystallization of 42CrMo Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 556, pp. 260–266. [CrossRef]
Xu, Y. , Tang, D. , Song, Y. , and Pan, X. , 2012, “ Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics Model of X70 Pipeline Steel,” Mater. Des., 39, pp. 168–174. [CrossRef]
Wei, H.-L. , Liu, G.-Q. , Zhao, H.-T. , and Kang, R.-M. , 2013, “ Hot Deformation Behavior of Two C–Mn–Si Based and C–Mn–Al Based Microalloyed High-Strength Steels: A Comparative Study,” Mater. Des., 50, pp. 484–490. [CrossRef]
Mirzadeh, H. , and Najafizadeh, A. , 2010, “ Prediction of the Critical Conditions for Initiation of Dynamic Recrystallization,” Mater. Des., 31(3), pp. 1174–1179. [CrossRef]
Rakhshkhorshid, M. , and Hashemi, S. H. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Hot Deformation Behavior in API X65 Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 573, pp. 37–44. [CrossRef]
Chatterjee, A. , Chakrabarti, D. , Moitra, A. , Mitra, R. , and Bhaduri, A. K. , 2015, “ Effect of Deformation Temperature on the Ductile–Brittle Transition Behavior of a Modified 9Cr–1Mo Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 630, pp. 58–70. [CrossRef]
Zhang, C. , Zhang, L. , Shen, W. , Liua, C. , Xia, Y. , and Li, R. , 2016, “ Study on Constitutive Modeling and Processing Maps for Hot Deformation of Medium Carbon Cr–Ni–Mo Alloyed Steel,” Mater. Des., 90, pp. 804–814. [CrossRef]
Rastegari, H. , Kermanpur, A. , Najafizadeh, A. , Porter, D. , and Somani, M. , 2015, “ Warm Deformation Processing Maps for the Plain Eutectoid Steels,” J. Alloys Compd., 626, pp. 136–144. [CrossRef]
Mirzadeh, H. , Parsa, M. H. , and Ohadi, D. , 2013, “ Hot Deformation Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steel for a Wide Range of Initial Grain Size,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 569, pp. 54–60. [CrossRef]
Dehghan-Manshadi, A. , and Hodgson, P. D. , 2008, “ Hot Deformation and Recrystallization of Austenitic Stainless Steel—Part I: Dynamic Recrystallization,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 39(6), pp. 1359–1370. [CrossRef]
Siyasiya, C. W. , and Stumpf, W. E. , 2015, “ Constitutive Constants for Hot Working of Steels: The Critoical Strain for Dynamic Recrystallization in C-Mn Steels,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 24(1), pp. 468–476. [CrossRef]
Medina, S. F. , and Hernandez, C. A. , 1996, “ General Expression of the Zener–Hollomon Parameter as a Function of the Chemical Composition of Low Alloy and Microalloyed Steels,” Acta Mater, 44(1), pp. 137–148. [CrossRef]
Sakai, T. , and Ohashi, M. , 1981, “ The Effect of Temperature, Strain Rate and Carbon Content on Hot Deformation of Carbon Steels,” Tetsu to Hagane, 67(11), pp. 134–143. [CrossRef]
Guo, Z. , and Li, L. , 2016, “ Influences of Alloying Elements on Warm Deformation Behavior of High-Mn TRIP Steel With Martensitic Structure,” Mater. Des., 89(5), pp. 665–675. [CrossRef]
Inoue, T. , Nanba, S. , Katsumata, M. , and Anan, G. , 1990, “ Matematical and Physical Simulation of Hot Rolling,” International Conference on Modelling of Hot Rolling, pp. 290–295.
Vasilyev, A. A. , Sokolov, S. F. , Kolbasnikov, N. G. , and Sokolov, D. F. , 2011, “ Effect of Alloying on the Self-Diffusion Activation Energy in γ-Iron,” Phys. Solid State, 53(11), pp. 2194–2200. [CrossRef]
Medvedeva, N. I. , Park, M. S. , van Aken, D. C. , and Medvedeva, J. E. , 2011, “ First Principles Study of the Mn, Al, and C Distribution and Their Effect on the Stacking Fault Energies in FCC Fe,” J. Alloys Compd., 582, pp. 475–482. [CrossRef]
Venugopal, S. , Mannan, S. L. , and Prasad, Y. V. R. K. , 1993, “ Influence of Cast Versus Wrought Microstructure on the Processing Map for Hot Working of Stainless Steel Type AISI 304,” Mater. Lett., 17(6), pp. 388–392. [CrossRef]
El Wahabi, M. , Gavard, L. , Montheillet, F. , Cabrera, J. M. , and Prado, J. M. , 2005, “ Effect of Initial Grain Size on Dynamic Recrystallization in High Purity Austenitic Stainless Steels,” Acta Mater., 53(17), pp. 4605–4612. [CrossRef]
Eghbali, B. , 2007, “ EBSD Study on the Formation of Fine Ferrite Grains in Plain Carbon Steel During Warm Deformation,” Mater. Lett., 61(18), pp. 4006–4010. [CrossRef]
Poliak, E. I. , and Jonas, J. J. , 2003, “ Initiation of Dynamic Recrystallization in Constant Strain Rate Hot Deformation,” ISIJ Int., 43(5), pp. 684–691. [CrossRef]
Guo-Zheng, Q. , Guisheng, L. , Tao, C. , Yixin, W. , Yanwei, Z. , and Jie, Z. , 2010, “ Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics of 42CrMo Steel During Compression at Different Temperatures and Strain Rates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 528(13–14), pp. 4643–4651.
McQueen, H. J. , and Imbert, C. A. C. , 2004, “ Dynamic Recrystallization: Plasticity Enhancing Structural Development,” J. Alloys Compd., 378(1–2), pp. 35–43. [CrossRef]
Moon, H. K. , Seong Lee, J. , Yoo, S. J. , Joun, M. S. , and Lee, J. K. , 2007, “ Hot Deformation Behavior of Bearing Steels,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 129(3), pp. 349–356. [CrossRef]
Shafiei, E. , and Ebrahimi, G. R. , 2013, “ A New Constitutive Equation to Predict Single Peak Flow Stress Curves,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 135(1), p. 011006. [CrossRef]
Sankar, J. , Hawkins, D. , and Mc Queen, H. J. , 1979, “ Behaviour of Low-Carbon and HSLA Steels During Torsion-Simulated Continuous and Interrupted Hot Rolling Practice,” Met. Technol., 6(1), pp. 325–331. [CrossRef]
Rao, K. P. , Hawbolt, E. B. , Mc Queen, H. J. , and Baragar, D. , 1993, “ Comparative High Temperature Constitutive Relationship for a Carbon Steel From Gleeble, Cam-Plastometer and Torsion Testing,” Can. Metall. Q., 32(2), pp. 165–175. [CrossRef]
Imbert, C. A. C. , and Mc Queen, H. J. , 2001, “ Peak Strength, Strain Hardening and Dynamic Restoration of A2 and M2 Tool Steels in Hot Deformation,” Mater. Sci. Eng., 313(1–2), pp. 88–103. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Typical stress–strain curve during hot deformation of steel in the austenitic condition [5]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Microstructures of the four steels in the as-cast condition (Nital etching)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Thermal cycle used for the compression tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

True stress–true strain curves of steel A deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

True stress–true strain curves of steel B deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

True stress–true strain curves of steel C deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

True stress–true strain curves of steel D deformed at three different temperatures: (a) = 1100 °C, (b) = 1150 °C, and (c) = 1200 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) log (/dt) versus log(sinh(ασ)) used for determination of n, (b) log(sinh(ασ) versus 1/T used for the determination of QHW, and (c) log(sinh(ασ) versus logZ used for the determination of A

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of the amount of substitutional alloying elements %s on QHW

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Linear extrapolation of θσ curves for determining σDRVssfor steel D at strain rate 2.4 s−1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison between the experimental data and the model of DRV for steel D, hot compressed at 1150 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

σ0 (a) and Ω (b) as function of Zener–Hollomon parameter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Application of the DRV model at higher temperature and strain rates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Steel D after only the thermal cycle at 1100 °C (a) and after hot compression at the same temperature (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

εc/D0p versus Zener–Hollomon parameter (Z) of the four steels (p = 0.3)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In