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Research Papers

A New Video Extensometer System for Testing Materials Undergoing Severe Plastic Deformation

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrea J. Felling

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Dalhousie University,
P.O. Box 15000,
Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
e-mail: andrea.felling@dal.ca

Darrel A. Doman

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Dalhousie University,
P.O. Box 15000,
Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
e-mail: darrel.doman@dal.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 12, 2017; final manuscript received January 16, 2018; published online April 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Vikas Tomar.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(3), 031005 (Apr 05, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1137; doi: 10.1115/1.4039291 History: Received May 12, 2017; Revised January 16, 2018

Characterization of materials undergoing severe plastic deformation requires the careful measurement of instantaneous sample dimensions throughout testing. For compressive testing, it is insufficient to simply estimate sample diameter from an easily measured height and volume. Not all materials exhibit incompressibility, and friction during testing can lead to a barreled sample with diameter that varies with height. Video extensometry has the potential to greatly improve testing by capturing the full profile of a sample, allowing researchers to account for such effects. Common two-dimensional (2D) video extensometry algorithms require thin, planar samples, as they are unable to account for out-of-plane deformation. They are, therefore, inappropriate for standard compressive tests which use cylindrical samples that exhibit large degrees of out-of-plane deformation. In this paper, a new approach to 2D video extensometry is proposed. By using background subtraction, the profile of a cylindrical sample can be isolated and measured. Calibration experiments show that the proposed system has a 3.1% error on calculating true yield stress—similar to ASTM standard methods for compressive testing. The system is tested against Aluminum 2024-T351 in a series of cold upsetting tests. The results of these tests match very closely with similar tests from the literature. A preliminary finite element model constructed using data from these tests successfully reproduced experimental results. Diameter data from the finite element model undershot, but otherwise closely matched experimental data.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Hydraulic press test chamber viewed from back wall

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Fig. 3

Test sample installed between marked platens

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Fig. 4

Static frame difference background subtraction algorithm

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Fig. 5

Calibration sheet—2 mm × 2 mm dot spacing

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Fig. 6

Edge coordinate “cloud”

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Fig. 7

Height calibration platen setup

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Fig. 8

Height calibration experiment results (absolute error)

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Fig. 9

Height calibration experiment results (relative error)

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Fig. 13

True stress–strain: Do/Ho = 0.8

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Fig. 14

True stress–strain: Do/Ho = 0.5

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Fig. 10

Relative error measuring diameter of unloaded cold upsetting samples

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Fig. 11

Force-displacement data for cold upsetting (Al2024-T351)

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Fig. 12

True stress–strain: Do/Ho = 1.0

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Fig. 15

Finite element model, 1 mm nominal mesh size

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Fig. 16

Finite element model: convergence study results

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Fig. 17

Stress distribution in finite element model

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Fig. 18

Top face of finite element model: detail view

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Fig. 19

Top face of a compacted aluminum sample

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Fig. 20

Video extensometer measurements versus FEM results

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