Research Papers

Multiscale Material Modeling and Simulation of the Mechanical Behavior of Dual Phase Steels Under Different Strain Rates: Parametric Study and Optimization

[+] Author and Article Information
Tarek M. Belgasam

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99163;
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Benghazi,
Benghazi 21861, Libya
e-mail: t.belgasam@wsu.edu

Hussein M. Zbib

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99163
e-mail: zbib@wsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 30, 2017; final manuscript received January 3, 2018; published online April 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Peter W. Chung.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(3), 031006 (Apr 05, 2018) (15 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1250; doi: 10.1115/1.4039292 History: Received August 30, 2017; Revised January 03, 2018

Recent studies on developing dual phase (DP) steels showed that the combination of strength/ductility could be significantly improved when changing the volume fraction and grain size of phases in the microstructure depending on microstructure properties. Consequently, DP steel manufacturers are interested in predicting microstructure properties as well as optimizing microstructure design at different strain rate conditions. In this work, a microstructure-based approach using a multiscale material and structure model was developed. The approach examined the mechanical behavior of DP steels using virtual tensile tests with a full micro-macro multiscale material model to identify specific mechanical properties. Microstructures with varied ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, and carbon content in DP steels were also studied. The influence of these microscopic parameters at different strain rates on the mechanical properties of DP steels was examined numerically using a full micro-macro multiscale finite element method. An elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model and a response surface methodology (RSM) were used to determine the optimum microstructure parameters for a required combination of strength/ductility at different strain rates. The results from the numerical simulations were compared with experimental results found in the literature. The developed methodology proved to be a powerful tool for studying the effect and interaction of key strain rate sensitivity and microstructure parameters on mechanical behavior and thus can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions at different strain rates.

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Fig. 1

Multiscale material modeling using digimat as the material modeler and ls-dyna as structural FEA software

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Fig. 2

Multiscale model scheme

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Fig. 3

The analytical and fitted stress–strain curves of DP steel constituents using originlab software for DP#2: (a) ferrite phase and (b) martensite phase

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Fig. 4

Comparison between the experimental and numerical results at specific microstructure parameters (df = 17.1 μm, dm = 12.6 μm, Vm = 11.9%, and C wt % = 0.12) [5], different mesh size, and strain rate

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Fig. 5

Numerical stress–strain curves for all design points in the analysis matrix

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Fig. 6

Flow curves of DP steels and their constituents predicted from the multiscale material model for (a) DP#1 and (b) DP#9

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Fig. 7

The effect of each microstructure parameter on the flow stress: (a) ferrite grain size, (b) martensite volume fraction, (c) carbon content, and (d) strain rate

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Fig. 9

Interaction plots for (a) ultimate strength and (b) ductility (fitted means)

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Fig. 10

Three-dimensional surface plots for the ultimate strength with each two factors: (a) C wt % = 0.105 and ε˙ = 250 s−1, (b) df = 6.85 μm and Vm = 25.15%, (c) C wt % = 0.105 and df = 6.85 μm, (d) df = 6.85 μm and ε˙ = 250 s−1, (e) C wt % = 0.105 and Vm = 25.15%, and (f) Vm = 25.15% and ε˙ = 250 s−1

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Fig. 11

Three-dimensional surface plots for the ductility with each two factors: (a) C wt % = 0.105 and ε˙ = 250 s−1, (b) df = 6.85 μm and Vm = 25.15%, (c) C wt % = 0.105 and df = 6.85 μm, (d) df = 6.85 μm and ε˙ = 250 s−1, (e) C wt % = 0.105 and Vm = 25.15%, and (f) Vm = 25.15% and ε˙ = 250 s−1

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Fig. 12

Mean effects plot for ultimate strength and ductility (fitted means)

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Fig. 13

Optimization chart of microstructure parameters for the maximum ultimate strength and ductility of DP steel at strain rate 1 s−1

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Fig. 14

Optimization chart of microstructure parameters for the maximum ultimate strength and ductility of DP steel at strain rate 0.14 s−1

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Fig. 8

The effect of ferrite grain size on ultimate strength and ductility for DP#8, DP#5, and DP#10 at constant other microstructure parameters (Vm = 25.15%, C wt % = 0.105%, and ε˙ = 250 s−1)



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