Research Papers

Cellulosic-Biowaste Composites and Their Stress Determination Using Digital Image Correlation

[+] Author and Article Information
Yoonhyuk Ro

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: ro.yoonhyuk@gmail.com

John F. Hunt

USDA Forest Products Laboratory,
Madison, WI 53726
e-mail: jfhunt@fs.fed.us

Robert E. Rowlands

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: rowlands@engr.wisc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 17, 2017; final manuscript received July 31, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hareesh Tippur.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(1), 011011 (Sep 12, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1339; doi: 10.1115/1.4041139 History: Received November 17, 2017; Revised July 31, 2018

In addition to processing a troubling agricultural by-product and reducing demands on our landfills, prepared agro-waste composites are suitable for a variety of practical applications. However, enhancing value-added options for these agricultural by-products can necessitate ability to assess their mechanical integrity. This paper accordingly describes the preparation of a cellulosic-manure composite and demonstrates ability to determine stresses in a perforated structure of the material from measured displacement data. Processing digital image correlation (DIC) recorded displacement information with an Airy stress function gives reliable results full-field as well as at the edge of geometric discontinuities without having to differentiate the recorded data. Required constitutive properties are evaluated in situ and results are substantiated independently.

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Fig. 1

Digested manure collected from a farm

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Fig. 2

Wet-formed composite mat prior to applying heat and pressure

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Fig. 3

(a) Structural components consisting of a light-weight, low density, 100% anaerobic digested manure-fiber panel core laminated between wood veneer plies [8]; (b) seed starter made of 80/20 anaerobic digested manure fiber/old corrugated cardboard fiber pressed into a flat panel then formed into an agro-pot product [8]; and (c) recent (2018) example of a planter box that was laser cut from a high-density fiberboard made of 60/40 fibrous mixture of anaerobic digested manure and recycled old corrugated container fibers

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Fig. 4

Perforated cellulosic-manure composite plate (R = 12.7 mm, w = 62 mm, and t = 7.2 mm), its loading and DIC recording

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Fig. 5

Digital image correlation-recorded vertical, v, displacements throughout perforated composite plate at 500 N

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Fig. 6

Vertical displacements, v, at m = 6719 input values at 500 N

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Fig. 7

Forces on each horizontal line of y-axes for a different modulus, E

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Fig. 8

Stress–strain response of cellulosic-manure composite from uniaxial tensile coupon

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Fig. 9

Contour plots of (a) v- and (b) u-displacements from ANSYS (left) and DIC-recorded v-displacement information (right)

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Fig. 10

Normalized tangential stress σθθ/σ0 along edge of hole

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Fig. 11

Contour plots of (a) σrr/σ0, (b) σθθ/σ0, (c) σ/σ0, (d) σxx/σ0, (e) σyy/σ0, and (f) σxy/σ0 from ANSYS (left) and DIC-recorded v-displacement information (right)

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Fig. 12

Axial, transverse, and thickness stress (ksi)-strain response of high-density lodgepole pine pulp fiber composite (density: 1000 kg/m3) formed using the described wet-forming process followed by hot-pressed consolidation. LP stands for lodgepole pine; A, T, and TH designate axial, transverse, and thickness directions, respectively; and 1307, 1319, and 1331 represent results of three individual tensile specimens/tests [5].

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Fig. 13

In-plane Poisson's ratio for lodgepole pine (LP) fiber and recycled old corrugated cardboard composites (density: 950 kg/m3) with increasing phenoformaldehyde resin content formed using the described wet-forming process followed by hot-pressed consolidation. Numbers 152–331 represent results of six individual specimens/tests [5].

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Fig. 14

Root-mean-squares of vertical displacement versus number of coefficients, k, for m = 6719 input values

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Fig. 15

Uniaxial testing of cellulosic-manure composite tensile coupon



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