0
Research Papers

Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Two Carbon/Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composites Created Via Equal Channel Angular Processing

[+] Author and Article Information
David J. Cook

Thayer School of Engineering at
Dartmouth College,
14 Engineering Drive,
Hanover, NH 03755
e-mail: Davidcook94@me.com

Hayden H. Chun

Thayer School of Engineering at
Dartmouth College,
14 Engineering Drive,
Hanover, NH 03755
e-mail: Haydenchun0@gmail.com

Douglas W. Van Citters

Thayer School of Engineering at
Dartmouth College,
14 Engineering Drive,
Hanover, NH 03755
e-mail: Douglas.W.Van.Citters@dartmouth.edu

1Present address: Pritzker School of Medicine at University of Chicago, 924 E. 57th St, Suite 104, Chicago, IL, 60637.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 21, 2018; final manuscript received August 8, 2018; published online October 18, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Francis Aviles.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(2), 021003 (Oct 18, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: MATS-18-1188; doi: 10.1115/1.4041389 History: Received June 21, 2018; Revised August 08, 2018

Ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) has the greatest impact strength of any thermoplastic and has a variety of both industrial and biomedical applications. Equal channel angular processing (ECAP) is a fabrication method for UHMWPE that introduces shear into the polymer matrix by deforming the polymer through an angular channel, with the goal of enhancing mechanical properties. Both nanographite (NG) and carbon black (CB) attract interest as potential carbon additives for use in creating UHMWPE conductive polymer composites (CPC), but they have not yet been extensively tested in conjunction with ECAP. This study presents a systematic evaluation of the mechanical and electrical properties of 1.0 wt % CB/UHMWPE and NG/UHMWPE composites created using ECAP. These samples are compared against pure UHMWPE ECAP controls as well as compression molded (CM) composite samples. Results indicate that both NG and CB carbon additives successfully create CPCs with a corresponding decrease in mechanical properties. ECAP results in comparatively high mechanical and conductive properties when compared with compression molding. Electrical conductivity is shown to be inversely correlated with tensile strain in a repeatable manner, and microstructural theory is discussed. This work suggests a method to produce flexible, conductive UHMWPE composites that vary consistently and predictably with applied strain, which could have a variety of biomedical and industrial applications.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Farrar, D. F. , and Brain, A. , 1997, “ The Microstructure of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Used in Total Joint Replacements,” Biomaterials, 18(24), pp. 1677–1685. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gunther, J. , and Rose, R. M. , 1994, “ Long-Term Performance and Wear of Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene in Total Joint Replacement Prostheses: A Brief Overview and Perspective,” J. Long. Term Eff. Med. Implants, 4(4), pp. 157–175. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10155138?dopt=Abstract [PubMed]
Wang, A. , Sun, D. C. , Stark, C. , and Dumbleton, J. H. , 1995, “ Wear Mechanisms of UHMWPE in Total Joint Replacements,” Wear, 181–183, pp. 241–249. [CrossRef]
Costa, L. , Jacobson, K. , Bracco, P. , and Brach del Prever, E. M. , 2002, “ Oxidation of Orthopaedic UHMWPE,” Biomaterials, 23(7), pp. 1613–1624. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bracco, P. , Bellare, A. , Bistolfi, A. , and Affatato, S. , 2017, “ Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Influence of the Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties on the Wear Behavior. A Review,” Materials, 10(7), pp. 1–22.
Kurtz, S. M. , 2016, UHMWPE Biomaterials Handbook, Elsevier, Waltham, MA.
Dumitriu, S. , (2002, Polymeric Biomaterials, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Wang, S. , and Ge, S. , 2007, “ The Mechanical Property and Tribological Behavior of UHMWPE: Effect of Molding Pressure,” Wear, 263(7–12), pp. 949–956. [CrossRef]
Reinitz, S. D. , Engler, A. J. , Carlson, E. M. , and Van Citters, D. W. , 2016, “ Equal Channel Angular Extrusion of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 67, pp. 623–628. [CrossRef]
Segal, V. M. , 1995, “ Materials Processing by Simple Shear,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 197(2), pp. 157–164.
Valiev, R. Z. , and Langdon, T. G. , 2006, “ Principles of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing as a Processing Tool for Grain Refinement,” Prog. Mater. Sci., 51(7), pp. 881–981. [CrossRef]
Iwahashi, Y. , Wang, J. , Horita, Z. , Nemoto, M. , and Langdon, T. G. , 1996, “ Principle of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing for the Processing of Ultra-Fine Grained Materials,” Scr. Mater., 35(2), pp. 143–146. [CrossRef]
Van Citters, D. , 2012, “ Angular Extrusion for Polymer Consolidation,” Patent No. US8642723B2.
Narkis, M. , Zilberman, M. , and Siegmann, A. , 1998, “ On the ‘Curiosity’ of Electrically Conductive Melt Processed Doped‐Polyaniline/Polymer Blends Versus Carbon‐Black/Polymer Compounds,” Polym. Adv. Technol., 8(8), pp. 525–528. [CrossRef]
Coleman, J. N. , Khan, U. , Blau, W. J. , and Gun'ko, Y. K. , 2006, “ Small but Strong: A Review of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube–Polymer Composites,” Carbon, 44(9), pp. 1624–1652. [CrossRef]
Bauhofer, W. , and Kovacs, J. Z. , 2009, “ A Review and Analysis of Electrical Percolation in Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 69(10), pp. 1486–1498. [CrossRef]
Deng, H. , Lin, L. , Ji, M. , Zhang, S. , Yang, M. , and Fu, Q. , 2014, “ Progress on the Morphological Control of Conductive Network in Conductive Polymer Composites and the Use as Electroactive Multifunctional Materials,” Top. Issue Electroact. Polym., 39(4), pp. 627–655.
Zhang, W. , Dehghani-Sanij, A. A. , and Blackburn, R. S. , 2007, “ Carbon Based Conductive Polymer Composites,” J. Mater. Sci., 42(10), pp. 3408–3418. [CrossRef]
Deplancke, T. , Lame, O. , Barrau, S. , Ravi, K. , and Dalmas, F. , 2017, “ Impact of Carbon Nanotube Prelocalization on the Ultra-Low Electrical Percolation Threshold and on the Mechanical Behavior of Sintered UHMWPE-Based Nanocomposites,” Polymers, 111, pp. 204–213. [CrossRef]
Hao, X. , Gai, G. , Yang, Y. , Zhang, Y. , and Nan, C. , 2008, “ Development of the Conductive Polymer Matrix Composite With Low Concentration of the Conductive Filler,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 109(1), pp. 15–19. [CrossRef]
Gupta, T. K. , Choosri, M. , Varadarajan, K. M. , and Kumar, S. , 2018, “ Self-Sensing and Mechanical Performance of CNT/GNP/UHMWPE Biocompatible Nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Sci., 53(11), pp. 7939–7952.
Wang, K. , Liu, M. , Song, C. , Shen, L. , Chen, P. , and Xu, S. , 2018, “ Surface-Conductive UHMWPE Fibres Via In Situ Reduction and Deposition of Graphene Oxide,” Mater. Des., 148, pp. 167–176. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y. , Qi, Y. , Tai, Z. , Yan, X. , Zhu, F. , and Xue, Q. , 2012, “ Preparation, Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide/Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composites,” Eur. Polym. J., 48(6), pp. 1026–1033. [CrossRef]
Tai, Z. , Chen, Y. , An, Y. , Yan, X. , and Xue, Q. , 2012, “ Tribological Behavior of UHMWPE Reinforced With Graphene Oxide Nanosheets,” Tribol. Lett., 46(1), pp. 55–63. [CrossRef]
Flandin, L. , Bréchet, Y. , and Cavaillé, J.-Y. , 2001, “ Electrically Conductive Polymer Nanocomposites as Deformation Sensors,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 61(6), pp. 895–901. [CrossRef]
Wu, Q. , Xu, Y. , Yao, Z. , Liu, A. , and Shi, G. , 2010, “ Supercapacitors Based on Flexible Graphene/Polyaniline Nanofiber Composite Films,” ACS Nano, 4(4), pp. 1963–1970. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wichmann, M. H. G. , Buschhorn, S. T. , Gehrmann, J. , and Schulte, K. , 2009, “ Piezoresistive Response of Epoxy Composites With Carbon Nanoparticles Under Tensile Load,” Phys. Rev. B, 80(24), p. 245437. [CrossRef]
Lin, L. , Liu, S. , Zhang, Q. , Li, X. , Ji, M. , Deng, H. , and Fu, Q. , 2013, “ Towards Tunable Sensitivity of Electrical Property to Strain for Conductive Polymer Composites Based on Thermoplastic Elastomer,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5(12), pp. 5815–5824. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Calvert, P. , Duggal, D. , Patra, P. , Agrawal, A. , and Sawhney, A. , 2008, “ Conducting Polymer and Conducting Composite Strain Sensors on Textiles,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 484(1), pp. 291/[657]–302/[668]. [CrossRef]
D'Lima, D. D. , Fregly, B. J. , and Colwell, C. W. , 2013, “ Implantable Sensor Technology: Measuring Bone and Joint Biomechanics of Daily Life In Vivo,” Arthritis Res. Ther., 15(1), p. 203. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lahiri, D. , Dua, R. , Zhang, C. , de Socarraz-Novoa, I. , Bhat, A. , Ramaswamy, S. , and Agarwal, A. , 2012, “ Graphene Nanoplatelet-Induced Strengthening of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene and Biocompatibility In Vivo,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 4(4), pp. 2234–2241. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ren, P.-G. , Di, Y.-Y. , Zhang, Q. , Li, L. , Pang, H. , and Li, Z.-M. , “ Composites of Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene With Graphene Sheets and/or MWCNTs With Segregated Network Structure: Preparation and Properties,” Macromol. Mater. Eng, 297(5), pp. 437–443. [CrossRef]
Martínez-Morlanes, M. J. , Castell, P. , Martínez-Nogués, V. , Martinez, M. T. , Alonso, P. J. , and Puértolas, J. A. , 2011, “ Effects of Gamma-Irradiation on UHMWPE/MWNT Nanocomposites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 71(3), pp. 282–288. [CrossRef]
Gao, J.-F. , Li, Z.-M. , Meng, Q. , and Yang, Q. , 2008, “ CNTs/UHMWPE Composites With a Two-Dimensional Conductive Network,” Mater. Lett, 62(20), pp. 3530–3532. [CrossRef]
Osorio, J. G. , and Muzzio, F. J. , 2015, “ Evaluation of Resonant Acoustic Mixing Performance,” Powder Technol., 278, pp. 46–56. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2014, “ Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. D638-14.
Olley, R. H. , and Bassett, D. C. , 1982, “ An Improved Permanganic Etchant for Polyolefins,” Polymers, 23(12), pp. 1707–1710. [CrossRef]
Van Citters, D. W. , Kennedy, F. E. , and Collier, J. P. , 2007, “ Rolling Sliding Wear of UHMWPE for Knee Bearing Applications,” Wear, 263(7–12), pp. 1087–1094. [CrossRef]
Chung, K. T. , Sabo, A. , and Pica, A. P. , 1982, “ Electrical Permittivity and Conductivity of Carbon Black‐Polyvinyl Chloride Composites,” J. Appl. Phys., 53(10), pp. 6867–6879. [CrossRef]
Mohanraj, G. T. , Chaki, T. K. , Chakraborty, A. , and Khastgir, D. , 2004, “ Effect of Some Service Conditions on the Electrical Resistivity of Conductive Styrene–Butadiene Rubber–Carbon Black Composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 92(4), pp. 2179–2188. [CrossRef]
Smuckler, J. H. , and Finnerty, P. M. , 1974, “ Performance of Conductive Carbon Blacks in a Typical Plastics System,” Fillers and Reinforcements for Plastics, ., American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 171–183.
Spitalsky, Z. , Tasis, D. , Papagelis, K. , and Galiotis, C. , 2010, “ Carbon Nanotube–Polymer Composites: Chemistry, Processing, Mechanical and Electrical Properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 35(3), pp. 357–401. [CrossRef]
Gao, P. , and Mackley, M. R. , 1994, “ The Structure and Rheology of Molten Ultra-High-Molecular-Mass Polyethylene,” Polymers, 35(24), pp. 5210–5216. [CrossRef]
Pickles, A. P. , Webber, R. S. , Alderson, K. L. , Neale, P. J. , and Evans, K. E. , 1995, “ The Effect of the Processing Parameters on the Fabrication of Auxetic Polyethylene—Part I: The Effect of Compaction Conditions,” J. Mater. Sci., 30(16), pp. 4059–4068. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2014, “ Standard Specification for Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Powder and Fabricated Form for Surgical Implants,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. F648-14.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional schematic of ECAP die with angle (ϕ) indicated [9]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Density grid superimposed on a rendering of the material to demonstrate the effects on the material (a) prior to and (b) during the extrusion process [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

UTS as a function of both carbon composition and processing parameters. All paired t-tests are statistically significant (p < 0.05) with the exception of CB ECAP versus neat compression molded control (p = 0.437) and UHMWPE ECAP control versus UHMWPE compression molded control (p = 0.318). Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

EAB as a function of both carbon composition and processing parameters. All paired t-tests are statistically significant (p < 0.05). Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Toughness as a function of both carbon composition and processing parameters. All paired t-tests are statistically significant (p < 0.05) with the exception of NG ECAP versus NG compression molded (p = 0.354) and CB ECAP versus neat compression molded control (p = 0.434). Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Zero strain resistivity as a function of carbon composition and processing parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of fractional resistance as a function of tensile strain for 1% NG and 1% CB samples, processed via both ECAP and compression molding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

SEM images of 200 μm thick samples of (a) neat UHMWPE ECAP control, (b) CB ECAP, (c) CB compression molded, (d) NG ECAP, and (e) NG compression molded, all at 500×

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In