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Research Papers

# Investigation of Oil Adsorption Performance of Polypropylene Nanofiber Nonwoven FabricPUBLIC ACCESS

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Wu

Organization for Research Initiatives
and Development,
Doshisha University,
1-3, Tataramiyakodani,
Kyotanabe City 610-0321, Kyoto, Japan
e-mail: weiwu@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

Toshiki Hirogaki

Department of Mechanical and
System Engineering,
Faculty of Science and Engineering,
Doshisha University,
1-3 Miyakodani Tatara,
Kyotanabe City 610-0321, Kyoto, Japan
e-mail: thirogak@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

Eiichi Aoyama

Department of Mechanical and
System Engineering,
Faculty of Science and Engineering,
Doshisha University,
1-3 Miyakodani Tatara,
Kyotanabe City 610-0321, Kyoto, Japan
e-mail: eaoayama@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

Morihiko Ikegaya

Technology Development Division of M-TechX Inc.,
3-8-10, Ueno, Iwatsukiku,
Saitama-shi, Saitama 339-0073, Japan
e-mail: ikegaya@mtechx.co.jp

Hiroyoshi Sota

M-TechX Inc.,
3-8-10, Ueno, Iwatsukiku,
Saitama-shi, Saitama 339-0073, Japan
e-mail: sota@mtechx.co.jp

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 28, 2017; final manuscript received October 11, 2018; published online December 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Erdogan Madenci.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(2), 021004 (Dec 10, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1183; doi: 10.1115/1.4041853 History: Received June 28, 2017; Revised October 11, 2018

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## Introduction

Nanofibers, comprising microsized fibers, with almost inconceivable characteristics such as specific surface area effectiveness, nanosize effectiveness, and molecular arrangement effectiveness, are gaining attention as a next-generation technology. Until now, most manufacturers produced nanofibers by either the centrifugal force method [1] or the electro-spray deposition method [2]. However, since both methods exhibit the risk of explosion as well as high cost and low efficiency, industrial applications are limited. As a nonwoven fabric microfiber manufacturing method of organic quality, the American Naval Research Laboratory developed a melt-blowing method in the 1950s and advanced the elucidation of the phenomenon and multiphase flow [3,4]. Subsequent research recognized the potential of the manufacturing processes of nanofibers [511]. However, that research only had low nanofiber output capacity with production capabilities of about 0.5–2 kg/h per nozzle and the fiber quality average diameter thinness was not high or consistent. Consequently, we conducted a trial production of nanofibers under the modified melt-blowing method by adjusting the venturi nozzle and the negative pressure condition. From our research [12], we have achieved mass production of about 30 kg/h per nozzle and average fiber diameter of about 500 nm. Based on the features of this nanofiber, we estimated that its properties were sufficient for applications such as medical care, environment protection, apparel, and agriculture. We also believe that this field would develop rapidly in the future, especially for the following major uses: (1) masks that can completely shut out PM 2.5, (2) super-water-repellent clothing, winterized and lightweight down jackets and futons, (3) adsorption materials for edible oil or marine oil pollution [13,14], (4) sound absorption material for cars and environmental offices/houses [15,16], and (5) semiconductor abrasive pads.

In the present study, we focus on an oil adsorption application. Since polypropylene (PP) has both water repellency and oil adsorption characteristics, we expect that its oil adsorption performance would be significantly higher compared to its weight with nanofiber nonwoven fabric. We considered the adsorption theories of capillarity, contact angle, and surface tension. Moreover, after the experiment, we proposed an oil adsorption three-direction physical model and compared the experimental and calculated results. Thus, we confirmed that the proposed model can accurately estimate the oil adsorption rate under different conditions, and nanofiber has exceptional oil adsorption performance. Further, the fiber with average diameter of 1500 nm exceeds 60 times its self-weight. Therefore, we believe that the proposed nanofiber nonwoven fabric oil adsorption pad could sufficiently be used as high-performance oil adsorption material.

## Trial-Produced Nanofiber by Modified Melt-Blowing Method

With the standard melt-blowing method, we reduce the thinness of the fiber diameter by accelerating the injection air or decreasing the polymer melt microquantity from the nozzle. However, with the air acceleration method, the fiber might become extremely short. Moreover, the polymer melt microquantity method influences the production quantity. In either case, obtaining high-quality nanofibers is difficult. To solve these problems, we accurately locate the polymer melt nozzle at the potential core boundary zone of the high-speed free jet air and control the flow velocity and the temperature distributions of the high-temperature air jet into space and the temperature to manage the polymer's viscosity [12]. We also control the polymer jet quantity from the nozzle to the proposed modified melt-blowing method that produces high-quality nanofiber (minimum is about 300–500 nm) and high volume production (output efficiency exceeds 30 kg/h). Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show an example of a trial-produced nanofiber by the proposed method. Generally, defining a chemical fiber's diameter is difficult, but a diameter of approximately 10–50 μm is standard. We achieved mass production by our proposed method, and the fiber diameter was less than 1/10.

To confirm the oil adsorption rate of our trial-produced nanofiber, we experimentally explored the relationship between the bulk density and the oil adsorption of a nanofiber. The oil (No.TO-MA-N) used in this experiment is machine oil manufactured by TRUSCO Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan) and its ISO viscosity grade (ISOVG) is 46. In addition, to confirm the influence of oil viscosity on adsorption ability, we compared the adsorption rate of two oils having different viscosities under the same experimental conditions. Figure 2 shows a nanofiber compression method using piston and cylinder, and we prepared different bulk density experiment pieces under a different fiber mass m. We assume the cylinder sectional area to be S and the bulk density to be ρn. We used different pressures to compress the fiber and subsequently decompress it after 5 min; we assumed its height in the cylinder after decompression to be hn (n = 0…3) (Eq. (1)) Display Formula

(1)$ρn=mShn,(n=0…3)$

When n = 0, it represents the noncompression state, and when n = 1…3, the piston gradually increases the pressure. As an experimental method, we compressed fiber aggregates of different diameters at different pressures with a piston and a cylinder (Fig. 2). With this method, we prepared many experiment pieces and placed each one into the oil. Here, to confirm the difference of oil adsorption rate with respect to the process time from placing the sample in oil to after adsorption, we prepared four test pieces having the same bulk densities. Follow the experimental procedure of Fig. 3(a)3(d), in the first step of the procedure, we measured mass m of nanofiber with a high precision electronic balance. Second, we placed the test piece into the oil until it became saturated. Next, after sufficient time, we removed and placed them on a mesh, and finally, after 0 s, 30 s, 3 min, and 5 min, respectively, we measured each mass M with a high-precision electronic balance (Model AS PRO ASP123F produced by AS ONE Corporation, Japan) and calculated the oil adsorption rate as M/m.

###### Suction Experiment.

To confirm the oil adsorption ability and maintenance capacity of trial-produced nanofiber in a different manner, we also conducted two different suction experiments with different bulk densities (0.01 g/cm3, 0.05 g/cm3, 0.2 g/cm3, and 0.3 g/cm3). The details of experiment are as shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b). Figure 4(a) shows suction experiment 1 that used only compressed fiber. In this experiment, we placed each test piece into the oil and observed the suction speed and maximum suction height. Suction experiment 2, also called the earth pillar method [14], is generally used for the measurement of the physical condition of the soil. In this experiment, we considered three different bulk densities (0.03 g/cm3, 0.05 g/cm3, and 0.1 g/cm3) of fibers, and the total length of each acrylic pipe was 500 mm [(length 50 mm × inside diameter 18 mm) × 10] as shown in Fig. 4(b). We placed the same mass fiber into each short pipe and firmly fixed them with tape. Next, we placed each long stick into the oil vertically to begin the experiment. After six days, until the suction height stopped changing, we measured the maximum suction height and separated the long pipe, and measured the oil mass that the fiber maintained in every short pipe (50 mm).

## Results and Discussion

###### Contact Angle, Capillarity, and Surface Tension Based on Three-Direction Model.

In Sec. 4.1, we confirmed the experiment results, but did not investigate the reason behind PP nanofiber adsorbing the oil and having exceptional adsorption capability. In this section, we elucidate these phenomena using theories of contact angle, capillarity, and surface tension based on the three-direction physical model. Figures 9(a)9(e) show our proposed three-direction model. Figures 9(a) and 9(b) show the three-direction fiber model and the minimum calculation unit in the fiber aggregate. In Figs. 9(b)9(e), we obtained the unit cubic length considering length coefficient ε3dDisplay Formula

(2)$l3d=ε3dr,(ε≥1)$

We assume the fiber mass in the cubic in Fig. 9(b) as mc3d, and the volume as Vc3d, the fiber radius as r (diameter d = 2r), and the PP density as ρDisplay Formula

(3)$mc3d=6πr2l3dρ$

From Eq. (3), the bulk density of fiber ρn3d is Display Formula

(4)$ρn3d=mc3dVc3d=6πr2l3dρ8l3d3=3π4ε3d2ρ$

From Eq. (4), the free volume η3d is Display Formula

(5)$η3d=8l3d3−6πr2l3d8l3d3=1−3π4ε3d2=1−ρn3dρ$

Further, Figs. 9(c)9(e) show two gaps from fiber to fiber: e1, e2 (e1, e2: three-direction → e1 − 3d, e2 − 3d). Since we wanted to calculate and analyze the oil suction phenomena based on capillarity and surface tension with the same direction fibers and ignore the other direction fibers, we only investigated the fibers gap: e1. From Eq. (5), we obtained the relationship between fiber gap e1 (Eq. (6)) Display Formula

(6)$e1−3d=2l3d−2r=d(3π4(1−η3d)−1)$

From Figs. 9(c) and 10, we obtain equilibrium of forces (Eq. (6)) in the Z-direction Display Formula

(7)$2πrT cos θ={(e1−3d+2r)2−πr2}ρgh$

and the suction height h can be shown by the below equation: Display Formula

(8)$h=2πrT cos θ{(e1−3d+2r)2−πr2}ρoilg$

Here, T is the surface tension (32 × 10−3 N/m) [18] of the chain saw oil absorbed by fiber, θ is the contact angle [1922] of oil to polypropylene (29 deg), and the measured density of the oil is 850 kg/m3.

Next, we produced nanofibers with feedstock PP that has excellent water repellency and oil adsorption properties. In addition, the phenomenon of capillarity could explain the principle of oil adsorption, i.e., the penetration of oil into the small gaps between fibers owing to the surface tension of oil molecules. In addition, the variation coefficient of fiber diameter was in the range of 55% to 60% and had almost identical variation in contrast with the average values. In the oil adsorption experiment, we evaluated the trial-produced fibers with 1500 nm diameter that was confirmed to have excellent oil adsorption performance from Sec. 4.1 and our previous research. Figure 11 shows the results of the relationship among free volume η3d, fiber diameter d, and gap e1 − 3d, calculated by Eq. (5). Figure 12 shows the results of suction experiment 1. From Fig. 12, we can confirm that the bulk density influenced the oil suction speed, i.e., when the fiber aggregate had high bulk density, the suction speed would become low. Figure 13 shows the comparison of results calculated by Eq. (7) and the experimental results of suction experiment 2, and we obtained a coefficient 1.1 that was calculated by the average ratio of the theoretical value to the experimental value. These results show that our proposed theories are useful, and using this coefficient, we can approximately estimate suction status such as suction height for various bulk densities of oil adsorption material.

###### Investigation of Oil Adsorption Rate Using Three-Direction Model.

As per the principles of oil adsorption, we consider that (1) the oil molecules want to invade the fiber aggregate to expand their 3D structure and (2) the net fiber aggregate generates elastic restoring force based on step (1). When it is nearing saturation, the force of the surface tension of the oil molecule and the fiber aggregate net is balanced. Examples of different bulk density fiber aggregates before and after adsorption are shown in Fig. 14. These experimental results suggest that the free volume of the fiber aggregate determines the adsorption quantity. We also obtained a ratio value of ε3d/ε3d. Here, we assume ε3d′ to be the length coefficient of the fiber after oil adsorption. From Fig. 9(b), we also obtain the following relationship between free volume and the oil adsorption rate: Display Formula

(9)$Mm=1+4η3dε3d2ρoil3πρ=1+η3dρoil(1−η3d)ρ$

From Eq. (9), we also calculated the after oil adsorption volume and the volume expansion rate of the fiber aggregate. Here, the fiber aggregate expanded when the oil adsorption was complete, and Fig. 15 illustrates this idea.

After oil adsorption V, the fiber volume becomes the total volume of the oil and the PP volumes. Equation (10) shows the relationship of the oil adsorption rate and the volume of fiber after oil adsorption when the fiber mass is constant Display Formula

(10)$V=voil+vfiber=(M/m)m−mρoil+mρ$

When the fiber volume before oil adsorption is Vn, we can also calculate the volume expansion rate of the fiber aggregate by Eq. (10) as the below equation: Display Formula

(11)$VVn=Vm/ρn3d=Vρ(1−η3d)m=(ε3d′ε3d)3$

Based on the procedure introduced in Sec. 3.1, we prepared many experiment samples with different fiber diameters and bulk densities (Fig. 14) and calculated the theoretical values by Eqs. (9)(11). The results are shown in Figs. 1618. Figure 16 shows the measurement results for the values of ε3d/ε3d, and using them, we obtained the expansion rate value of V/Vn after adsorption. From these results, we confirmed that the 1500 nm fiber exhibits the peak expansion rate values. Figure 17 shows the influence of V/Vn on M/m. Based on these results, we comprehended that the 1500 nm fiber aggregate having large expansion rate has substantially excellent oil adsorption rate (Figs. 57). To perceive these phenomena, we consider that the thinner fiber (800 nm) is fragile and cannot retain a considerable amount of oil when we place it out of the oil. Further, when the oil penetrates into the fiber aggregate, the thicker strong fiber (7700 nm) lacks sufficient power to prop up the aggregate to make them expand. Although the same bulk density of fiber aggregate could supply the same free volume space to adsorb oil and there exists no relation to fiber diameter theoretically, we expected the 1500 nm fiber to obtain a balance among fibers with other diameters and have a maximum expansion to maintain a substantial quantity of oil. Figure 18 shows the comparison of free volume and oil adsorption rate based on experiment and calculation.

From the above investigation, the results show that our proposed theories are useful and can approximately estimate the relationship between the free volume η and the oil adsorption rate M/m. We can also estimate the volume after oil adsorption based on our proposed theories.

## Conclusions

In the present paper, we investigated the oil adsorption and performances of our trial-produced nanofiber and concluded the results as follows:

1. (1)Our experimental results clarified that a proposed nonwoven fabric is found to exhibit exceptional oil adsorption performance. We compared the oil adsorption capacity of our trial-produced fiber with various diameters and found the 1500 nm fiber to have the most considerable adsorption rate. Using 1500 nm fiber, we also measured the oil adsorption rate above 60 times (0 s), and nearly at 40 times (30 s) the self-weight under free volume η (95–99%) and nearly 40 times (0 s), 30 times (30 s) the self-weight under free volume η (85–91%). Further, we found that the thickness of test piece influences the adsorption rate, because when the thickness of test piece is large, the fiber at the bottom of the test piece supports the weight of the oil in the upper part. We consider the oil in the upper part to provide the pressure at the bottom, and the oil at the bottom is extruded from the bottom of the test piece.
2. (2)We proposed a three-direction physical model of a fiber aggregate to compare the calculated results of our proposed model of suction height and adsorption rate and its experimental results and identify similar tendencies. Therefore, we conclude that our proposed theories are useful and can approximately estimate the relationship between free volume η and oil adsorption rate M/m and suction height for various bulk densities of oil adsorption material. We can also estimate the volume after oil adsorption by our proposed theories.
3. (3)To analyze the adsorption results, the 1500 nm fiber shows the most considerable oil adsorption performance. We consider that the thinner fiber (800 nm) is fragile and cannot maintain a substantial amount of oil when we place it out of the oil. Moreover, when the oil penetrates into the fiber aggregate, the thicker fiber (7700 nm) having high elasticity lacks the sufficient power to prop up the aggregate to provide them with a large change to expand. Although the same bulk density of fiber aggregate can supply the same free volume space to adsorb oil and there exists no relation to fiber diameter theoretically, we expected the 1500 nm fiber to obtain a balance among fibers with other diameters and have maximum expansion to retain a considerable quantity of oil.

## References

Zhang, X. , and Lu, Y. , 2014, “ Centrifugal Spinning: An Alternative Approach to Fabricate Nanofibers at High Speed and Low Cost,” J. Polym. Rev., 54(4), pp. 677–701.
Zhmayev, E. , Cho, D. , and Lak Joo, Y. , 2010, “ Nanofibers From Gas-Assisted Polymer Melt Electrospinning,” J. Polym., 51(18), pp. 4140–4144.
Matsumoto, M. , and Yoshida, K. , 1993, “ Study on Melt-Blowing Process for Coal-Tar Pitch,” J. TANSO, 1993(157), pp. 75–81 (in Japanese).
Hu, Y. , and Huang, Z.-M. , 2007, “ Numerical Study on Two-Phase Flow Patterns in Coaxial Electrospinning,” J. Appl. Phys., 101(8), p. 084307.
Rao, R. S. , and Shambaugh, R. L. , 1993, “ Vibration and Stability in the Melt Blowing Process,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 32(12), pp. 3100–3111.
Matsubara, M. , Takeuchi, Y. , Ono, H. , and Sasaki, A. , 2008, “ Fiberization of Ceramics Using Melt-Blowing Method,” J. JSME, 74(737), pp. 74–80 (in Japanese).
Tan, D. H. , Zhou, C. , Ellison, C. J. , Kumar, S. , Macosko, C. W. , and Bates, F. S. , 2010, “ Influence of Viscosity and Elasticity on Diameter Distribution,” J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 165(15–16), pp. 892–900.
Xie, S. , and Zeng, Y. , 2013, “ Online Measurement of Fiber Whipping in the Melt-Blowing Process,” J. Comput. Fluids, 52(5), pp. 2116–2122.
Ambroso, A. , Chalons, C. , and Raviart, P.-A. , 2012, “ A Godunov-Type Method for the Seven-Equation Model of Compressible Two-Phase Flow,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 54, pp. 67–91.
Liang, S. , Liu, W. , and Yuan, L. , 2014, “ Solving Seven-Equation Model for Compressible Two-Phase Flow Using Multiple GPUs,” J. Comput. Fluids, 99, pp. 156–171.
Ha, C.-T. , Park, W.-G. , and Jung, C.-M. , 2015, “ Numerical Simulations of Compressible Flows Using Multi-Fluid Models,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 74, pp. 5–18.
Wei, W. , Lei Ma Eiichi, A. , Toshiki, H. , Morihiko, I. , Takatsugu, E. , and Sota, H. , 2017, “ Study on Oil Adsorption and Polishing Characteristics by Novel Nanofiber Pad for Ultra-Precision Abrasive Machining,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2017-2678.
Kurata, S. , Iyozumi, T. , and Aizawa, N. , 2010, “ Comparison of Oil Sorbent/Vial Kit for Sampling and Preservation of Liquid Volatile Petroleum,” J. Jpn. Pet. Inst., 53(6), pp. 359–364 (in Japanese).
Ohtsubo, M. , 2012, “ Evaluation of Kerosene Absorbing Ability for Peat Moss Using a Column Test,” J. IDRE, 80(1), pp. 1–7 (in Japanese).
Naoya, K. , and Teruo, K. , 2010, “ Sound Absorption Property of Porous Sound Absorbent Formed by Using Cotton Flies,” J. Text. Eng., 56(5), pp. 147–152 (in Japanese).
Sakamoto, S. , Higuchi, K. , and Koseki, S. , 2015, “ Study of Sound-Absorbing Materials Using Layered Narrow Clearances Between Two Surfaces (Theoretical Analysis and Experiments of Sensu (Folding Fan) Shaped Test Samples),” Bull. JSME, 9(5), pp. 1–25 (in Japanese).
Kurata, S. , and Aizawa, N. , 2010, “ Comparison of Retention Capacities of Oil Sorbents for Collection of Volatile Petroleum Samples,” J. Jpn. Pet. Inst., 53(5), pp. 313–318.
Yuan, Y. , and Randall Lee, T. , 2013, “ Contact Angle and Wetting Properties,” Surface Science Techniques, Springer, Berlin, pp. 3–34.
Keizo, O. , and Shigemura, K.-I. , 1976, “ Studies of the Removal of Oily Soil by Rolling-Up in Detergency—II: On Binary Soil Systems Consisting of Oleic Acid and Liquid Paraffin,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 49(11), pp. 3236–3238.
Broje, V. , and Keller, A. A. , 2007, “ Interfacial Interactions Between Hydrocarbon Liquids and Solid Surfaces Used in Mechanical Oil Spill Recovery,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 305(2), pp. 286–292. [PubMed]
Rasilaimen, T. , 2010, “ Controlling Water on Polypropylene Surfaces With Micro- and Micro/Nanostructures,” UEF Electronic Publications, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland, pp. 1–42.
Phaechamud, T. , and Savedkairop, C. , 2012, “ Contact Angle and Surface Tension of Some Solvents Used in Pharmaceuticals,” Res. J. Pharm., Biol. Chem. Sci., 3(4), pp. 513–529.
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## References

Zhang, X. , and Lu, Y. , 2014, “ Centrifugal Spinning: An Alternative Approach to Fabricate Nanofibers at High Speed and Low Cost,” J. Polym. Rev., 54(4), pp. 677–701.
Zhmayev, E. , Cho, D. , and Lak Joo, Y. , 2010, “ Nanofibers From Gas-Assisted Polymer Melt Electrospinning,” J. Polym., 51(18), pp. 4140–4144.
Matsumoto, M. , and Yoshida, K. , 1993, “ Study on Melt-Blowing Process for Coal-Tar Pitch,” J. TANSO, 1993(157), pp. 75–81 (in Japanese).
Hu, Y. , and Huang, Z.-M. , 2007, “ Numerical Study on Two-Phase Flow Patterns in Coaxial Electrospinning,” J. Appl. Phys., 101(8), p. 084307.
Rao, R. S. , and Shambaugh, R. L. , 1993, “ Vibration and Stability in the Melt Blowing Process,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 32(12), pp. 3100–3111.
Matsubara, M. , Takeuchi, Y. , Ono, H. , and Sasaki, A. , 2008, “ Fiberization of Ceramics Using Melt-Blowing Method,” J. JSME, 74(737), pp. 74–80 (in Japanese).
Tan, D. H. , Zhou, C. , Ellison, C. J. , Kumar, S. , Macosko, C. W. , and Bates, F. S. , 2010, “ Influence of Viscosity and Elasticity on Diameter Distribution,” J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 165(15–16), pp. 892–900.
Xie, S. , and Zeng, Y. , 2013, “ Online Measurement of Fiber Whipping in the Melt-Blowing Process,” J. Comput. Fluids, 52(5), pp. 2116–2122.
Ambroso, A. , Chalons, C. , and Raviart, P.-A. , 2012, “ A Godunov-Type Method for the Seven-Equation Model of Compressible Two-Phase Flow,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 54, pp. 67–91.
Liang, S. , Liu, W. , and Yuan, L. , 2014, “ Solving Seven-Equation Model for Compressible Two-Phase Flow Using Multiple GPUs,” J. Comput. Fluids, 99, pp. 156–171.
Ha, C.-T. , Park, W.-G. , and Jung, C.-M. , 2015, “ Numerical Simulations of Compressible Flows Using Multi-Fluid Models,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 74, pp. 5–18.
Wei, W. , Lei Ma Eiichi, A. , Toshiki, H. , Morihiko, I. , Takatsugu, E. , and Sota, H. , 2017, “ Study on Oil Adsorption and Polishing Characteristics by Novel Nanofiber Pad for Ultra-Precision Abrasive Machining,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2017-2678.
Kurata, S. , Iyozumi, T. , and Aizawa, N. , 2010, “ Comparison of Oil Sorbent/Vial Kit for Sampling and Preservation of Liquid Volatile Petroleum,” J. Jpn. Pet. Inst., 53(6), pp. 359–364 (in Japanese).
Ohtsubo, M. , 2012, “ Evaluation of Kerosene Absorbing Ability for Peat Moss Using a Column Test,” J. IDRE, 80(1), pp. 1–7 (in Japanese).
Naoya, K. , and Teruo, K. , 2010, “ Sound Absorption Property of Porous Sound Absorbent Formed by Using Cotton Flies,” J. Text. Eng., 56(5), pp. 147–152 (in Japanese).
Sakamoto, S. , Higuchi, K. , and Koseki, S. , 2015, “ Study of Sound-Absorbing Materials Using Layered Narrow Clearances Between Two Surfaces (Theoretical Analysis and Experiments of Sensu (Folding Fan) Shaped Test Samples),” Bull. JSME, 9(5), pp. 1–25 (in Japanese).
Kurata, S. , and Aizawa, N. , 2010, “ Comparison of Retention Capacities of Oil Sorbents for Collection of Volatile Petroleum Samples,” J. Jpn. Pet. Inst., 53(5), pp. 313–318.
Yuan, Y. , and Randall Lee, T. , 2013, “ Contact Angle and Wetting Properties,” Surface Science Techniques, Springer, Berlin, pp. 3–34.
Keizo, O. , and Shigemura, K.-I. , 1976, “ Studies of the Removal of Oily Soil by Rolling-Up in Detergency—II: On Binary Soil Systems Consisting of Oleic Acid and Liquid Paraffin,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 49(11), pp. 3236–3238.
Broje, V. , and Keller, A. A. , 2007, “ Interfacial Interactions Between Hydrocarbon Liquids and Solid Surfaces Used in Mechanical Oil Spill Recovery,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 305(2), pp. 286–292. [PubMed]
Rasilaimen, T. , 2010, “ Controlling Water on Polypropylene Surfaces With Micro- and Micro/Nanostructures,” UEF Electronic Publications, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland, pp. 1–42.
Phaechamud, T. , and Savedkairop, C. , 2012, “ Contact Angle and Surface Tension of Some Solvents Used in Pharmaceuticals,” Res. J. Pharm., Biol. Chem. Sci., 3(4), pp. 513–529.

## Figures

Fig. 1

Trial-produced nanofiber

Fig. 2

Test piece production and bulk density

Fig. 3

Experimental method

Fig. 4

Suction experiment

Fig. 5

Influence of fiber diameter on oil adsorption capacity

Fig. 6

Influence of bulk density on oil adsorption capacity

Fig. 7

Influence of thickness on oil adsorption capacity

Fig. 8

Oil adsorption experiment for different thicknesses of test pieces

Fig. 9

Three-direction fiber aggregate model

Fig. 10

Model of suction and oil adsorption

Fig. 11

Influence of free volume on minimum e1 − 3d

Fig. 12

Influence of bulk density on suction speed

Fig. 13

Results of suction height

Fig. 14

Fig. 15

Oil adsorption model of fiber aggregate

Fig. 16

Fig. 17

Influence of V/Vn on M/m

Fig. 18

Comparison of calculated and experiment value on M/m

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