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Research Papers

Effect of Ni and Zn Elements on the Microstructure and Antibacterial Properties of Cu Coatings

[+] Author and Article Information
Khaled S. Al-Athel

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: kathel@kfupm.edu.sa

Najat Marraiki

Department of Botany and Microbiology,
King Saud University,
Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: najat@ksu.edu.sa

Abul Fazal M. Arif

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: afmarif@kfupm.edu.sa

Syed Sohail Akhtar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: ssakhtar@kfupm.edu.sa

Javad Mostaghimi

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, ON, M5S 3G8 Canada
e-mail: mostag@mie.utoronto.ca

Mohamed Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal, PQ, H3G 1M8 Canada
e-mail: mo_bra@encs.concordia.ca

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7, Canada.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received December 9, 2018; final manuscript received April 16, 2019; published online August 1, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Vikas Tomar.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 142(1), (Aug 01, 2019) (7 pages) Paper No: MATS-18-1322; doi: 10.1115/1.4044265 History: Received December 09, 2018; Accepted July 10, 2019

In this work, 316L stainless steel samples were coated with copper (Cu) and German silver (Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn) to investigate the relation between their mechanical and antibacterial behaviors. The mechanical and material characteristics of the samples were studied by looking into the microstructure of the surface and the cross-section of the coatings, the surface roughness, and the adhesion strength between the coating layer and the substrate. The antibacterial behavior is then studied against gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Two experiments were conducted to examine the antibacterial behavior. In the first experiment, the coated samples were covered with distilled water, whereas in the second experiment, the samples were tested without being covered with distilled water. The results show that German silver (Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn) had a higher antibacterial rate than copper (Cu) by around 10% for both gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus. The reason is because a smoother surface is expected to limit the bacterial adhesion in most cases, and the German silver samples have a lower surface roughness (Ra) due to the higher thermal expansion value of zinc (Zn) compared with copper (Cu). A more in-depth look into the effect of various thickness of the coating with alloying elements (in this case nickel and zinc) on the antibacterial rate would be of great interest.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Shape and dimensions of coated samples: (a) Cu-coated sample, (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn-coated sample, and (c) dimensions of coated disks

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Fig. 2

XRD spectra of coated samples

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Fig. 3

Top view SEM micrographs at M×100 and M×1500: (a) Cu coating and (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn

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Fig. 4

Cross-section SEM micrographs of the coatings: (a) Cu coating and (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coating

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Fig. 5

3D surface profile of Cu coating sample

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Fig. 6

SEM micrographs showing min and max pore size in Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coating

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Fig. 7

Micrographs showing the absence of E. coli bacteria: (a) Cu coating and (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coating

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Fig. 8

Micrographs showing the absence of S. aureus bacteria: (a) Cu coating and (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coating

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Fig. 9

Petri-dish with Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coatings and the control without the coating: (a) E. coli, (b) S. aureus, and (c) control (S. aureus)

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Fig. 10

Micrographs showing the surface of the coatings after autoclaving (control): (a) Cu coating and (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coating

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Fig. 11

E. coli petri-dish after incubation for 24 h: (a) Cu coating and (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coating

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Fig. 12

S. aureus petri-dish after incubation for 24 h: (a) Cu coating and (b) Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn coating

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