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Research Papers

J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 2015;137(4):041001-041001-11. doi:10.1115/1.4030480.

Friction stir welding (FSW) technique has been successfully applied to butt joining of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 to one type of advanced high strength steel (AHSS), transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) 780/800 with the highest weld strength reaching 85% of the base aluminum alloy. Mechanical welding forces and temperature were measured under various sets of process parameters and their relationships were investigated, which also helped explain the observed macrostructure of the weld cross section. Compared with FSW of similar aluminum alloys, only one peak of axial force occurred during the plunge stage. Three failure modes were identified during tensile tests of weld specimens, which were further analyzed based on the microstructure of joint cross sections. Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer with appropriate thickness and morphology was shown to be beneficial for enhancing the strength of Al–Fe interface.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 2015;137(4):041002-041002-8. doi:10.1115/1.4030481.

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites used in the construction of composite-based civil and military marine crafts are often exposed to aggressive elements that include ultraviolet radiation, moisture, and cyclic loadings. With time, these elements can individually and more so cooperatively degrade the mechanical properties and structural integrity of FRP composites. To assist in increasing the long-term reliability of composite marine crafts, this work experimentally investigates the cooperative damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV), moisture, and cyclic loading on the structural integrity of carbon fiber reinforced vinyl-ester marine composite. Results demonstrate that UV and moisture can synergistically interact with fatigue damage mechanisms and accelerate fatigue damage accumulation. For the considered composite, damage and S–N curve models with minimal fitting constants are proposed. The new models are derived by adapting well-known cumulative fatigue damage models to account for the ability of UV and moisture to accelerate fatigue damaging effects.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 2015;137(4):041003-041003-9. doi:10.1115/1.4030687.

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of yield strength of the filler material and weld metal penetration on the load carrying capacity of butt welded joints in high-strength steels (HSS) (i.e., grade S700 and S960). These joints are manufactured with three different filler materials (under-matching, matching, and over-matching) and full and partial weld metal penetrations. The load carrying capacities of these mentioned joints are evaluated with experiments and compared with the estimations by finite element analysis (FEA), and design rules in Eurocode3 and American Welding Society Code AWS D1.1. The results show that load carrying estimations by FEA, Eurocode3, and AWS D1.1 are in good agreement with the experiments. It is observed that the global load carrying capacity and ductility of the joints are affected by weld metal penetration and yield strengths of the base and filler materials. This influence is more pronounced in joints in S960 steel welded with under-matched filler material. Furthermore, the base plate material strength can be utilized in under-matched butt welded joints provided appropriate weld metal penetration and width is assured. Moreover, it is also found that the design rules in Eurocode3 (valid for design of welded joints in steels of grade up to S700) can be extended to designing of welds in S960 steels by the use of correlation factor of one.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 2015;137(4):041004-041004-9. doi:10.1115/1.4030759.

The fatigue properties of two variants of AISI 1018 steel samples were measured in a series of 33 experiments using new kinds of magnetic diagnostics. An MTS-810 servohydraulic test machine applied sinusoidal fully reversed (R = −1) loads under strain (Є) control in the range of 0.0008 (Є) 0.0020. In 28 experiments, the number of cycles to fatigue failure Nf varied between 36,000 < Nf < 3,661,000. By contrast, in five runs extending over 107 cycles, the specimens showed no detectable signs of weakening or damage. The corresponding “S-N” or classical Wöhler plots indicated that the transitions from fatigue failure to nominally infinite life (i.e., the fatigue limit) occurred at strains of about Є = 0.0009 and Є = 0.0010, respectively, for the two types of steel. Every loading cycle of each test was instrumented to record continual values of stress and strain. Flux gate magnetometers measured the variations of the piezomagnetic fields near the specimens. A 1000-turn coil surrounding the test pieces detected the piezo-Barkhausen pulses generated by abrupt rearrangements of their internal ferromagnetic domain structures. Analyses of the magnetic data yielded four independent indices each of which located the fatigue limits in complete agreement with the values derived from the Wöhler curves.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 2015;137(4):041005-041005-10. doi:10.1115/1.4030804.

This paper presents a methodology to define and verify the dynamic behavior of materials based on Taylor's test. A brass alloy with a microstructure composed mainly of two pure metals that have two different crystal structures, copper (face-centered cubic (fcc)) and zinc (hexagonal closed-packed (hcp)), is used in this study. A combined approach of different principal mechanisms controlled by the emergence and evolution of mobile dislocations as well as the long-range intersections between forest dislocations is, therefore, adopted to develop accurate definition for its flow stress. The constitutive relation is verified against experimental results conducted at low and high strain rates and temperatures using compression screw machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), respectively. The present model predicted results that compare well with experiments and was capable of simulating the low strain rate sensitivity that was observed during the several static and dynamic tests. The verified constitutive relations are further integrated and implemented in a commercial finite element (FE) code for three-dimensional (3D) Taylor's test simulations. A Taylor's test enables the definition of only one point on the stress–strain curve for a given strain rate using the initial and final geometry of the specimen after impact into a rigid surface. Thus, it is necessary to perform several tests with different geometries to define the complete material behavior under dynamic loadings. The advantage of using strain rate independent brass in this study is the possibility to rebuild the complete process of strain hardening during Taylor's tests by using the same specimen geometry. Experimental results using the Taylor test technique at a range of velocity impacts between 70 m/s and 200 m/s are utilized in this study to validate the constitutive model of predicting the dynamic behavior of brass at extreme conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 2015;137(4):041006-041006-12. doi:10.1115/1.4030786.

Accurate prediction of the formability in multistage forming process is very challenging due to the dynamic shift of limiting strain during the different stages depending on the tooling geometry and selection of the process parameters. Hence, in the present work, a mathematical framework is proposed for the estimation of stress based and polar effective plastic strain-forming limit diagram (σ- and PEPS-FLD) using the Barlat-89 anisotropic plasticity theory in conjunction with three different hardening laws such as Hollomon, Swift, and modified Voce equation. Two-stage stretch forming setup had been designed and fabricated to first prestrain in an in-plane stretch forming setup, and, subsequently, limiting dome height (LDH) testing was carried out on the prestrained blanks in the second stage to evaluate the formability. The finite element (FE) analysis of these two-stage forming process was carried out in ls-dyna for automotive grade dual-phase (DP) and interstitial-free (IF) steels, and the σ-FLD and PEPS-FLD were used as damage model to predict failure. The predicted forming behaviors, such as LDH, thinning development, and the load progression, were validated with the experimental results. It was found that the LDH in the second stage decreased with increase in the prestrain amount, and both the σ-FLD and PEPS-FLD could be able to predict the formability considering the deformation histories in the present multistage forming process with complex strain path.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 2015;137(4):044501-044501-7. doi:10.1115/1.4030338.

Fatigue analysis of a simply supported composite plate with laminate configuration of [0n/90n]s under central patch impulse loading is presented using an analytical method. The method mainly consists of two steps, one, evaluation of vibration induced stresses for the given central patch impulse loading using modal analysis, and two, fatigue analysis using S–N curve approach, residual strength approach as well as failure function approach. The stress state in the plate was evaluated using viscous damping model as a function of time. The stress-time history was converted into block loading consisting of many sub-blocks. In the present study, the block loading consisted of four sub-blocks and a total of 175 numbers of cycles. The block loading was repeated after every 5 s. Next, fatigue analysis was carried out based on the block loading condition evaluated. Number of loading blocks for fatigue failure initiation and the location of failure were obtained. Studies were also carried out using two-dimensional (2D) finite element analysis (FEA). Number of loading blocks required to cause fatigue failure initiation under central patch impulse loading was found to be 3120 and 3170 using the analytical method and 2D FEA, respectively.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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