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Lee Jaehong, Kim Kwangwon, Ju Jaehyung, et al. Compliant Cellular Materials With Elliptical Holes for Extremely High Positive and Negative Poisson's Ratios J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 137, 011001 (2014) (17 pages);   Paper No: MATS-14-1072;   doi:10.1115/1.4028317

Cellular materials' two important properties—structure and mechanism—can be selectively used for materials design; in particular, they are used to determine the modulus and yield strain. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of these two properties and to explore the synthesis of compliant cellular materials (CCMs) with compliant porous structures (CPSs) generated from modified hexagonal honeycombs. An in-plane constitutive CCM model with CPSs of elliptical holes is constructed using the strain energy method, which uses the deformation of hinges around holes and the rotation of links. A finite element (FE) based simulation is conducted to validate the analytical model. The moduli and yield strains of the CCMs with an aluminum alloy are about 4.42 GPa and 0.57% in one direction and about 2.14 MPa and 20.9% in the other direction. CCMs have extremely high positive and negative Poisson's ratios (NPRs) (νxy* ∼ ±40) due to the large rotation of the link member in the transverse direction caused by an input displacement in the longitudinal direction. A parametric study of CCMs with varying flexure hinge geometries using different porous shapes shows that the hinge shape can control the yield strength and strain but does not affect Poisson's ratio which is mainly influenced by rotation of the link members. The synthesized CPSs can also be used to design a new CCM with a Poisson's ratio of zero using a puzzle-piece CPS assembly. This paper demonstrates that compliant mesostructures can be used for next generation materials design in tailoring mechanical properties such as moduli, strength, strain, and Poisson's ratios.

Maniatty Antoinette, Karvani Payman. Constitutive Relations for Modeling Single Crystal GaN at Elevated Temperatures J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 137, 011002 (2014) (7 pages);   Paper No: MATS-14-1094;   doi:10.1115/1.4028441

Thermal–mechanical constitutive relations for bulk, single-crystal, wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) at elevated temperatures, suitable for modeling crystal growth processes, are presented. A crystal plasticity model that considers slip and the evolution of mobile and immobile dislocation densities on the prismatic and basal slip systems is developed. The experimental stress–strain data from Yonenaga and Motoki (2001, “Yield Strength and Dislocation Mobility in Plastically Deformed Bulk Single-Crystal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., 90(12), pp. 6539–6541) for GaN is analyzed in detail and used to define model parameters for prismatic slip. The sensitivity to the model parameters is discussed and ranges for parameters are given. Estimates for basal slip are also provided.

Park Dong-Yeob, Gravel Jean-Philippe, Arafin Muhammad, et al. Evaluation of Two Low-Constraint Toughness Test Methods in a Single Specimen J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 137, 011003 (2014) (9 pages);   Paper No: MATS-14-1100;   doi:10.1115/1.4028728

In previous studies, the single- and double-clip gauge methods were successfully consolidated in a single-edge notched tension (SE(T)) single specimen so that crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) values obtained from both SE(T) methods could be compared under identical test conditions. The current study investigated the effect of unloading compliance crack size equations on resistance curves obtained from both gauging methods combined in a single specimen. It was found that the unloading compliance crack size equations of Cravero and Ruggieri and the single clip gauge method predict crack sizes well within approximately 2% error in average. Two CTOD-resistance curves obtained from both gauging methods produce approximately the same results until peak loads, and thereafter the curves deviate. The results obtained from the double clip gauge method are consistently higher than those from the single clip gauge, although the difference between two resistance curves is reduced when the same unloading compliance crack size prediction procedure is used. This observation is very important within the framework of engineering critical assessment (ECA) and defect assessment procedures. An “apparent” higher resistance curve will generate larger tolerable defects thereby reducing the conservatism of an ECA analysis.

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