Research Papers

Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation by 120 deg ECAP or Shock Impact on 6061 Aluminum Alloy at High Strain Rates

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Camalet

ICube UMR 7357—Laboratoire des
sciences de l'ingénieur,
de l'informatique et de l'imagerie,
300 bd Sébastien Brant—CS 10413,
Illkirch Cedex F-67412, France
e-mail: tristan.camalet@etu.unistra.fr

A. Rusinek, R. Bernier

Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and
Mechanics of Materials (LEM3),
University of Lorraine,
UMR-CNRS 7239,
7 rue Félix Savart,
Metz 57073, France

M. Karon, M. Adamiak

Institute of Engineering Materials
and Biomaterials,
Silesian University of Technology,
ul Konarskiego 18A,
Gliwice 44-100, Poland

R. Massion

Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and
Mechanics of Materials (LEM3),
University of Lorraine,
UMR-CNRS 7239,
7 rue Félix Savart,
Metz 57073, France;
DAMAS, Lab Excellence Design Alloy Met Low
Mass Struct,
University of Lorraine,
Metz F-57045, France

G. Z. Voyiadjis

Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory,
Department of Civil and Environmental
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
e-mail: voyiadjis@eng.lsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 22, 2017; final manuscript received January 22, 2018; published online April 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Vikas Tomar.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(4), 041001 (Apr 13, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1278; doi: 10.1115/1.4039690 History: Received September 22, 2017; Revised January 22, 2018

The aim of this paper is to analyze the macroscopic behavior of an aluminum alloy after severe plastic deformations (SPD). Samples of 6061 aluminum alloy are processed at room temperature by two techniques of SPD: equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) under quasi-static loading and impact under dynamic loading, using Taylor's test setup. In addition to the mechanical properties, the microstructure evolution of the material is investigated. Half of the samples are aged at 400 °C for 2 h, to remove internal stress in a commercial alloy in order to increase workability of the material. The evolution of the properties and the material behavior after 2, 4, 6, and 8 passes of the 120 deg ECAP process is investigated.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Gubicza, J. , Chinh, N. Q. , Krállics, G. , Schiller, I. , and Ungár, T. , 2006, “ Microstructure of Ultrafine-Grained Fcc Metals Produced by Severe Plastic Deformation,” Curr. Appl. Phys., 6(2), pp. 194–199. [CrossRef]
Kamikawa, N. , Huang, X. , Tsuji, N. , and Hansen, N. , 2009, “ Strengthening Mechanisms in Nanostructured High-Purity Aluminium Deformed to High Strain and Annealed,” Acta Mater., 57(14), pp. 4198–4208. [CrossRef]
Qiao, X. G. , Gao, N. , and Starink, M. J. , 2012, “ A Model of Grain Refinement and Strengthening of Al Alloys Due to Cold Severe Plastic Deformation,” Philos. Mag., 92(4), pp. 446–470. [CrossRef]
Philibert, J. , Vignes, A. , Bréchet, Y. , and Combrade, P. , 2002, Métallurgie: Du Minerai Au Matériau, 2e éd., Dunod, Paris, pp. 453–456.
Mott, N. F. , 1980, “ The Beginnings of Solid State Physics,” Proc. R. Soc. London Improv. Nat. Knowl., 371(1744), pp. 136–138. [CrossRef]
Segal, V. M. , 1977, “The Method of Material Preparation for Subsequent Working,” Patent No. 575892.
Werenskiold, J. C. , 2004, “ Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) of AA6082: Mechanical Properties, Texture and Microstructural Development,” Ph.D. thesis, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/244538
Segal, V. M. , Reznikov, V. I. , Drobyshevskiy, A. E. , and Kopylov, V. I. , 1981, “Plastic Working of Metals by Simple Shear,” Russ. Metall., 1, pp. 99–115.
Nadai, A. , 1950, Theory of Flow and Fracture, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Karon, M. , Kopysc, A. , Adamiak, M. , and Konieczny, J. , 2016, “ Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Annealed 6060 Aluminium Alloy Processed by ECAP Method,” Arch. Comput. Mater. Sci. Surf. Eng., 80(1), pp. 31–36.
Iwahashi, Y. , Wang, J. , Horita, Z. , Nemoto, M. , and Langdon, T. G. , 1996, “Principle of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing for the Processing of Ultra-Fine Grained Materials ,” Scr. Mater., 35(2), pp. 143–146. [CrossRef]
Segal, V. M. , 1995, “Materials Processing by Simple Shear,” Mat. Sci. Eng. A, 197(2), pp. 157–164. [CrossRef]
Langdon, T. G. , Furukawa, M. , Iwahashi, Y. , Horita, Z. , and Nemoto, M. , 1998, “ The Shearing Characteristics Associated With Equal-Channel Angular Pressing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 257(2), pp. 328–332. [CrossRef]
Chrominski, W. , Olejnik, L. , Rosochowski, A. , and Lewandowska, M. , 2015, “ Grain Refinement in Technically Pure Aluminium Plates Using Incremental ECAP Processing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 636, pp. 172–180. [CrossRef]
Suo, T. , Chen, Y. Z. , Li, Y. L. , Wang, C. X. , and Fan, X. L. , 2013, “ Strain Rate Sensitivity and Deformation Kinetics of ECAPed Aluminium Over a Wide Range of Strain Rates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 560, pp. 545–551. [CrossRef]
Klepaczko, J. R. , 2006, “ Strength of Materials Under Impact,” Introduction to Experimental Techniques for Materials Testing at High Strain Rates, Institute of Aviation Scientific Library, Warsaw, Poland.
Jafarlou, D. M. , Zalnezhad, E. , Hassan, M. A. , Ezazi, M. A. , Mardi, N. A. , Hamouda, A. M. S. , Hamdi, M. , and Yoon, G. H. , 2016, “ Severe Plastic Deformation of Tubular AA 6061 Via Equal Channel Angular Pressing,” Mater. Des., 90, pp. 1124–1135. [CrossRef]
Fang, D. R. , Zhang, Z. F. , Wu, S. D. , Huang, C. X. , Zhang, H. , Zhao, N. Q. , and Li, J. J. , 2006, “ Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing on Tensile Properties and Fracture Modes of Casting Al–Cu Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 426(1–2), pp. 305–313. [CrossRef]
Tian, Y. Z. , Zhao, L. J. , Chen, S. , Shibata, A. , Zhang, Z. F. , and Tsuji, N. , 2015, “ Significant Contribution of Stacking Faults to the Strain Hardening Behavior of Cu-15%Al Alloy With Different Grain Sizes,” Sci. Rep., 5(1), p. 16707. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dalla Torre, F. H. , Pereloma, E. V. , and Davies, C. H. J. , 2006, “ Strain Hardening Behavior and Deformation Kinetics of Cu Deformed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion From 1 to 16 Passes,” Acta Mater., 54(4), pp. 1135–1146. [CrossRef]
Valiev, R. Z. , and Langdon, T. G. , 2006, “ Principles of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing as a Processing Tool for Grain Refinement,” Prog. Mater. Sci., 51(7), pp. 881–981. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Hydraulic device use for ECAP specimen preparation and (b) sketch of the matrix used to deform the specimens [10]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sample extrusion: (a) route 1 and (b) route 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Taylor's test description used to induce an initial plastic deformation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Process used for dynamic characterization after Taylor test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Microhardness distribution along the Taylor's test specimens for as received and annealed microstructure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic description of SHPB

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Initial microstructure A0. Light microscopy, magnification 100×- bright field (a) radial direction (εN=0) and (b) longitudinal direction (εN=0).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Light microscopy, magnification 200×- bright field. Heat treated aluminum alloy: (a) after 2 ECAP passes using routes 1 and (b) after 8 ECAP passes using route 1, both longitudinal direction.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Behavior of Al 6061 under dynamic compression for different number of passes and material state

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Compression tests of annealed ECAP samples for two strain rates: (a) 1600 s−1 and (b) 2700 s−1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Compression tests at high strain rate, stress versus cumulative strain: (a) annealed ECAP sample and (b) as received ECAP samples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Compression tests, stress versus cumulative strain of annealed ECAP samples for different strain rates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Compression tests, stress versus strain of (a) as received and (b) annealed predeformed samples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Light microscopy, magnification 200×- Nomarski interference contrast. Aluminum alloy after Taylor test T1–9 bar, 137,7 m/s: (a) front and (b) end of specimen.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In