An Assessment of In-Service Stress Relaxation of a Work-Hardened Aluminum Magnesium Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Zhu, A. J. Beaudoin

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801

S. R. MacEwen

Alcan International, Limited, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 126(2), 157-163 (Mar 18, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1647128 History: Received June 02, 2003; Revised November 21, 2003; Online March 18, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


MacEwen, S. R., 1999, “Stress Relaxation in Beer Cans: Deformation of AA 5182 at Rather Low Strain Rates,” in The Physical Basis of Plasticity, A Symposium to Honor Dr. U. F. Kocks, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Wagoner, R. H., Carden, W. D., Carden, W. P., and Matlock, D. K., 1997, “Springback After Drawing and Bending of Metal Sheets,” in IPMM ’97—Intelligent Processing and Manufacturing of Materials, 1 , University of Wollongong, pp. 1–10.
Hart,  E. W., and Solomon,  H. D., 1973, “Load Relaxation Studies of Polycrystalline High Purity Aluminum,” Acta Metall., 21, pp. 295–307.
Hart,  E. W., and Garmestani,  H., 1993, “Mechanical Testing Using Direct Control of the Inelastic Strain Rate,” Exp. Mech., 1, pp. 1–6.
Yamada,  H., and Li,  C. Y., 1974, “Stress Relaxation and Mechanical Equation of State in B.C.C. Metals in Monotonic Loading,” Acta Metall., 22, pp. 249–253.
Saimoto,  S., and Kuo,  R.-C., 1991, “Simulation of the Effect of Solute Drag: 2. During Load Relaxation,” Scr. Metall. Mater., 25, pp. 2797–2802.
Diak, B. J., Upadhyaya, K. R., and Saimoto, S., 1998, “Characterization of Thermodynamic Response by Materials Testing,” in M. F. Ashby, B. Cantor, J. W. Christian, and T. B. Massalski, eds., Progress in Materials Science, 43 , Pergamon Press Ltd., Oxford, England.
Garmestani,  H., Vaghar,  M. F., and Hart,  E. W., 2001, “A Unified Model for Inealstic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials—Application to Transient Behavior in Cyclic Loading and Relaxation,” Int. J. Plast., 17, pp. 1367–1391.
Follansbee,  P. S., and Kocks,  U. F., 1988, “A Constitutive Description of the Deformation of Copper Based on the Use of the Mechanical Threshold Stress as an Internal State Variable,” Acta Metall., 36, pp. 81–93.
Chen, S. R., Kocks, U. F., MacEwen, S. R., Beaudoin, A. J., and Stout, M. G., 1998, “Constitutive Modeling of a 5182 Aluminum as a Function of Strain Rate and Temperature,” in Hot Deformation of Aluminum Alloys II, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 205–216.
Kocks,  U. F., and Mecking,  H., 2002, “Physics and Phenomenology of Strain Hardening: The FCC Case,” Prog. Mater. Sci., 48, pp. 171–273.
Hart,  E. W., 1976, “Constitutive Relations for the Nonelastic Deformation of Metals,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 98, pp. 193–202.
Feltham,  P., 1963, “Stress Relaxation and Dynamic Recovery in Cobalt at Low Temperatures,” Philos. Mag., 8, pp. 989–996.
Sargent,  G. A., 1965, “Stress Relaxation and Thermal Activation in Niobium,” Acta Metall., 13, pp. 663–671.
Korhonen, M. A., Hannula, S. P., and Li, C. Y., 1987, “State Variable Theories Based on Hart’s Formulation,” in Unified Constitutive Equations for Creep and Plasticity, Elsevier, pp. 89–137.
Hart,  E. W., 1978, “Constitutive Relations for Non-Elastic Deformation,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 46, pp. 179–185.
Kumar,  V., Morjaria,  M., and Mukherjee,  S., 1980, “Numerical Integration of Some Stiff Constitutive Models of Inelastic Deformation,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 102, pp. 92–96.
Kocks, U. F., Argon, A. S., and Ashby, M. F., 1975, “Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Slip,” in Progress in Materials Science, B. Chalmers, J. W. Christian, and T. B. Massalski, eds., 19 , Pergamon Press Ltd., Oxford, England.
Kocks, U. F., 1987, “Constitutive Behavior Based on Crystal Plasticity,” in Unified Constitutive Equations for Creep and Plasticity, Elsevier, pp. 1–88.
Saimoto, S., 1989, “Examination of the Hart-Li State Variable Parameters in Terms of Thermally Activated Dislocation—Defect Interaction,” in Materials Architecture Proceedings of the Riso International Symposium on Metallurgy and Materials Science, Riso Natl Lab., pp. 557–564.


Grahic Jump Location
Fitting with Hart’s model—stress evolution for R1 (44.5 mm)
Grahic Jump Location
Time dependent buckle pressure of can end stock
Grahic Jump Location
An end shell, a buckled shell, and a buckled can end
Grahic Jump Location
Bent beam relaxation test—test measurement
Grahic Jump Location
Stress distribution throughout beam thickness and residual stress
Grahic Jump Location
Plastic strain versus time during relaxation (R1=44.5 mm,T=20°C)
Grahic Jump Location
Kinetics at different stress levels
Grahic Jump Location
Kinetics at different temperatures
Grahic Jump Location
Kinetics with MTS model
Grahic Jump Location
Fitting with Hart’s model—kinetics
Grahic Jump Location
Modified Hart’s model
Grahic Jump Location
Fitting with modified Hart’s model—stress evolution for R4 (25.9 mm)
Grahic Jump Location
Fitting with modified Hart’s model—kinetics



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In