Measurement and Microstructural Evaluation of Creep-Induced Changes in Magnetic Properties of a 410 Stainless Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Polar, J. E. Indacochea, M. L. Wang, V. Singh, G. Lloyd

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 126(4), 392-397 (Nov 09, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1790542 History: Received July 03, 2003; Revised May 18, 2004; Online November 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dooley, R. B., and Viswanathan, R., ed., 1987, “Life Extension Assessment of Fossil Power Plants,” EPRI CS 5208, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Ebine,  N., and Ara,  K., 1999, IEEE Trans. Magn., 35(5), p. 3928.
Dobmann,  G., Meyendorf,  N., and Schneider,  E., 1997, “Nondestructive Characterization of Materials—A Growing Demand for Describing Damage and Service-Life-Relevant Aging Processes in Plant Components,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 171, pp. 95–112.
Govindaraju,  M. R., Kaminski,  D. A., Devine,  M. K., Biner,  S. B., and Jiles,  D. C., 1997, “Nondestructive Evaluation of Creep Damage in Power-Plant Steam Generators and Pipiyng by Magnetic Measurements,” NDT&E Int., 30, pp. 11–17.
Murty,  K. L., Mathew,  M. D., Wang,  Y., Shah,  V. N., and Haggag,  F. M., 1998, Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 75(11), p. 831.
Benz,  A. E. G., 1998, Mater. Eval., 56(10), p. 1215.
Devine,  M. K., Jiles,  D. C., Eichmann,  A. R., Kaminski,  D. A., and Hardwick,  S., 1993, “Magnescope-Applications in Nondestructive Evaluation,” J. Appl. Phys., 73, pp. 5617–5619.
Wang, M. L., 1998, “Monitoring of Cable Forces Using Magnetoelastic Sensors,” Proceedings of the 2nd US-China Symposium Workshop on Recent Developments and Future Trends of Computational Mechanics in Structural Engineering, May 25–28 Dalian, PRC.
Wang, M. L., and Chen, Z., 2000, “Magnetoelastic Permeability Measurements for Stress Monitoring in Steel Tendons and Cables,” in Proceedings of the 7th Annual Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, Health Monitoring of the Highway Transportation Infrastructure, March 6–9, CA.
Fabo,  P., Wang,  M. L., Chandoga,  M., and Jarosevic,  A., 1999, “New Applications on Magnetoelastic Method,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.), 8–9, pp. 290–293.
Wang, M. L., and Chen, Z. L., 2000, “Post-Earthquake Stress Monitoring in Steel Tendons and Cables,” in Supplementary Proceedings of SRRS2, Conference on Seismic Repair and Rehabilitation of Structures 2, March 21–22, pp. 72–91.
Garafalo, F., 1965, Fundamentals of Creep and Creep Rupture in Metals, MacMillan Series in Materials Science, The MacMillan Co., New York.
Bressers, J., ed., 1981, Creep and Fatigue in High Temperature Alloys, Applied Science Publishers, London.
Bernasconi, G., and Piatti, G., ed., 1979, Creep of Engineering Materials and Structures, Applied Science Publishers, London.
Sherby,  O. D., and Burke,  P. M., 1967, “Mechanical Behavior of Crystalline Solids at Elevated Temperatures,” Progress Mater. Sci., 13, p. 325.
La,  E. N., and Andrade,  C., 1910, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, A84, p. 1.
McVetty, P. G., 1934, Mech. Engg., 56 , p. 49.
Li,  J. C., 1963, Acta Metall., 11, p. 1269.
Akulov,  N. S., 1964, Acta Metall., 12, p. 1195.
Guy, A. G., 1976, Essentials of Materials Science, McGraw-Hill, Inc., p. 210.
Kim,  G. S., Indacochea,  J. E., and Spry,  T. D., 1988, “Weldability Studies in CrMoV Turbine Rotor Steel,” J. Mater. Eng., 10(2), pp. 117–132.
Kim, G. S., Indacochea, J. E., and Spry, T. D., 1989, “Weldability Studies in HP and IP Turbine Rotor Steels,” EPRI Publication on Weld Repair on High-and Intermediate Pressure Turbine Rotors for Life Extension, GS-6233.
Kim,  G. S., Indacochea,  J. E., and Spry,  T. D., 1991, “Metallurgical Aspects in Welding CrMoV Turbine Rotor Steels—Part I: Evaluation of the Base Material and HAZ,” J. Materials Science and Technology, 7(1), pp. 42–49.
Oh,  Y. K., and Indacochea,  J. E., 1997, “Effect of HAZ Softening on Creep Rupture Properties of 1.0Cr-1.0Mo-0.25V Turbine Rotor Steels—Part I: Creep Rupture Life,” Welding Journal of the Korean Welding Society, 15(2), pp. 47–55.
Indacochea,  J. E., and Seshadri,  R., 1997, “An Analysis of Creep Damage in a Welded Low Alloy Steel Rotor,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., A234–236, pp. 555–558.
Indacochea,  J. E., Wang,  G., Seshadri,  R., and Oh,  Y. K., 2000, “Creep Rupture Properties of High-Temperature Bainitic Steels After Weld Repair,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 122, pp. 259–263.


Grahic Jump Location
(a) Saturation hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic material depicting changes in the curve with stress changes. (b) Changes in permeability (μ) with applied magnetic field (H) in steel tendons and cables for different applied stresses.
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of cold work on the yield strength of pure iron. The electron micrographs show the corresponding changes in the number and distribution of dislocations [18].
Grahic Jump Location
Optical micrographs of the 410 martensitic steel specimens submitted to creep. (a) As-received, (b) intermediate crept, and (c) crept to failure.
Grahic Jump Location
Scanning electron micrographs of the 410 martensitic steel depicting the carbide population. (a) As-received specimen, and (b) specimen crept to failure, 49 hours at 200 MPa/620° C.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the effect of cell distortion of a BCC cell along the c-axis and corresponding x-ray patterns for the BCC and BCT unit cells
Grahic Jump Location
X-ray patterns obtained for the as-received 410-martensitic stainless steel and two creep samples
Grahic Jump Location
Magnetic hysteresis curves of the as-received and creep-tested specimens. Intermediate Creep: 100 hrs @ 500° C, 100 MPa; Full Creep: 49 hrs @ 620° C, 200 MPa. Magnetic measurements were made at room temperature and zero nominal stress.
Grahic Jump Location
Magnetic hysteresis curves of the as-received and creep tested specimens for the 12.7 mm diameter 410-martensitic stainless steel, showing differences detected for different locations on sample. Measurements were made at room temperature and zero nominal.
Grahic Jump Location
SEM micrographs of regions in the necked area of the 12.7 mm diameter 410 stainless steel rod. Sample was exposed to creep rupture at 100 MPa/620° C for 120 hours. Arrows point to locations of voids. Carbides were found within the grains and the grain boundaries.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In