Research Papers

Sensing Creep Evolution in 410 Stainless Steel by Magnetic Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Alberto Polar

 North American Stainless, 6870 US Highway 42, East Ghent, KY 41045

J. E. Indacochea

Department of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607

M. L. Wang

467 Snell Engineering Center, 360 Huntington Ave., Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 132(4), 041004 (Sep 10, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000304 History: Received August 07, 2007; Revised July 13, 2009; Published September 10, 2010; Online September 10, 2010

The creep evolution was followed by conducting magnetic measurements on ferromagnetic steel samples exposed to different creep strains at a constant temperature. 410 stainless steel (410 SS) rods were submitted to creep at 625°C applying a constant stress of 124 MPa for different creep times. A magnetic hysteresis curve was generated for every sample. It was found that the shape of the hysteresis curves varied with creep time. The extent of creep was assessed by measuring magnetic saturation, coercivity, and remanence. The changes in microstructure due to creep are related to variations in magnetic properties, which are explained in terms of possible magnetic domain pinning. It was observed that the microstructural changes due to creep are better correlated with the coercivity of the material. In summary, it is feasible to use a magnetoelastic sensor to detect the partial level of creep in a ferromagnetic material by nondestructive examination.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Creep , Measurement
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Figure 1

Hysteresis curves corresponding to (a) as-received sample, (b) 170 h creep sample, (c) 240 h creep sample, and (d) 340 h creep sample

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Figure 2

Induced magnetization at early portion of hysteresis curve for an applied field of 2000 Tesla as a function of creep strain

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Figure 3

Lath martensite microstructure of the as-received rod

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Figure 4

Strain versus time plot for the creep rupture test at 625°C at 124 MPa

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Figure 5

Microstructure of the test sample exposed to 170 h of creep (1.12% creep strain) at 625°C

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Figure 6

Saturated magnetic induction as function of creep strain for all three creep specimens. The as-received sample reading is also included as reference.

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Figure 7

SEM micrograph of the test sample exposed to a 340 h creep (1.82% creep strain) at 625°C

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Figure 8

Magnetic remanence change with creep strain

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Figure 9

Coercivity plot for all samples studied as function of creep strain

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Figure 10

SEM micrographs showing the carbide size differences between the samples that were exposed to creep at 625°C for (a) 170 h and (b) 340 h



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