Research Papers

Study of Machining-Induced Microstructure Variations of Nanostructured/Ultrafine-Grained Copper Using XRD

[+] Author and Article Information
Yong Huang1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0921yongh@clemson.edu

Mason Morehead2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0921


Corresponding author.


Present address: Parker Hannifin Corp., Spartanburg, SC 29302.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 133(2), 021007 (Mar 04, 2011) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003105 History: Received December 31, 2009; Revised November 15, 2010; Published March 04, 2011; Online March 04, 2011

Various methods for the production of bulk nanostructured (NS)/ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials have been developed, including equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE), a form of severe plastic deformation. Using an ECAE NS/UFG copper bar as an example, this study has investigated machining-induced workpiece microstructure variation using X-ray diffraction. It has been found that (1) under gentle cutting conditions, there was a 10% increase in the median grain size compared with unmachined ECAE NS/UFG copper bars. Increases in the arithmetic-, area-, and volume-weighted grain sizes were found to be 10%, 8%, and 8%, respectively, and (2) an average 27% drop in the dislocation density was observed between the machined and unmachined ECAE copper bars. The dislocation density was shown to have the most reduction (39%) at the outer radius of the machined ECAE bar where more heat and/or higher pressure were experienced.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Schematic illustration of an ECAE deformation process

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Figure 2

Experimental preparation: (a) machining setup schematic, (b) sample preparation and cutting configuration, and (c) SEM images of the machined ECAE copper bar obtained at the center and outer radius locations under V=1 m/s, doc=0.05 mm, and f=0.15 mm/rev

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Figure 3

(a) Actual prepared prisms and (b) dimensions and labeling of prepared prisms

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Figure 4

(a) First five peaks with larger intensity and (b) fitting of the peaks for the outer radius location of ECAE copper before machining (dashed line: measured intensities, solid line: fitted functions (f(x)) which overlap for most regions)

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Figure 5

Finite element analysis of copper machining (V=1 m/s, doc=0.05 mm (not marked in this figure), and f=0.15 mm/rev per Figs.  22)



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