Research Papers

Effect of Localized Metal Matrix Composite Formation on Spot Friction Welding Joint Strength

[+] Author and Article Information
Scott F. Miller

Mechanical Engineering,  University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822

Senthil G. Arul

Department of Navy, Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, DC 20376

Grant H. Kruger, Albert J. Shih

Mechanical Engineering,  University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Tsung-Yu Pan

Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 133(3), 031009 (Jul 18, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004389 History: Received March 31, 2010; Revised May 27, 2011; Published July 18, 2011; Online July 18, 2011

In this study, metal particles were added during the spot friction welding (SFW) process, a solid state sheet metal joining process, to create a localized metal matrix composite (MMC) for the improvement of lap shear strength in AISI 6111-T4 aluminum alloy sheets. The Ancorsteel® 1000 particles were compressed between the upper and lower sheets and distributed concentrically around the tool axis perpendicular to the plate surface, which formed a localized MMC and were effective as the reinforcement particles in aluminum 6111-T4 alloy sheets. Results revealed that the MMC reinforcement improved the lap shear strength of SFW joints by about 25%. An aluminum-ferrous solid solution was formed around the steel particles along the aluminum matrix interface. The load-deflection curve shows that the steel particle MMC increased both the strength and ductility of SFW joint. This is attributed to two phenomena observed on the failed lap shear tensile specimens with SFW MMC. One is the longer and more torturous crack path, and the other is the secondary crack on steel particle MMC reinforced SFW joints.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Machine and fixture used to produce samples: (a) overview of SFW experimental setup and (b) fixture

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Figure 2

SEM micrograph of Ancorsteel® 1000 particles

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Figure 3

Schematic illustration of the SFW MMC process, tool entry (top), end of plunging and stirring (middle), and tool extraction (bottom)

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Figure 4

SEM micrographs of the cross-section of SFW joint: (a) close-up view at the corner of the key hole and (b) close-up view of the joint line and the kissing bond between upper and lower coupons

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Figure 5

SEM micrographs of the stir zone showing the steel particle sizes and distributions

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Figure 6

EDX chemical composition analysis of steel particle highlighted in Fig. 5

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Figure 7

Macrographs of tested specimens showing enlarged view of cracked area in (a) without steel particle MMC (baseline) and (b) with steel particle MMC

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Figure 8

Load-deflection curves for the baseline specimen (sample #1-baseline) and particle reinforced MMC specimens (sample #2-MMC and sample #3-MMC)

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Figure 9

Visual examination of the mating surfaces of the (a) baseline (sample #1-baseline) and (b) MMC (sample #3-MMC) specimens showing primary and secondary cracks

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Figure 10

Crack propagation by (a) particle fracture and (b) void nucleation

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Figure 11

Cross-sectional macrograph of sample #2-MMC and enlarged view of the fractured area showing nonuniform distribution of reinforcement particles

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Figure 12

SEM back scattered image of the sample #3-MMC showing the primary and secondary crack occur at the reinforcement particle interface

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Figure 13

Progressively enlarged view of the primary and secondary cracks

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Figure 14

(a) SEM picture of bottom side of upper sheet, (b) EDX analysis of the marked area, (c) SEM picture of top side of bottom sheet, (d) back scattered image of (c), and (e) EDX analysis of marked area in (c)



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