Research Papers

Large Strain Mechanical Behavior of HSLA-100 Steel Over a Wide Range of Strain Rates

[+] Author and Article Information
Maen Alkhader

Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125-5000; Mechanical Engineering Department,  Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2300maen.alkhader@stonybrook.edu

Laurence Bodelot

 Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125-5000lbodelot@caltech.edu

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 134(1), 011005 (Dec 06, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005268 History: Received April 08, 2011; Accepted September 09, 2011; Revised September 09, 2011; Published December 06, 2011; Online December 06, 2011

High-strength low alloy steels (HSLA) have been designed to replace high-yield (HY) strength steels in naval applications involving impact loading as the latter, which contain more carbon, require complicated welding processes. The critical role of HSLA-100 steel requires achieving an accurate understanding of its behavior under dynamic loading. Accordingly, in this paper, we experimentally investigate its behavior, establish a model for its constitutive response at high-strain rates, and discuss its dynamic failure mode. The large strain and high-strain-rate mechanical constitutive behavior of high strength low alloy steel HSLA-100 is experimentally characterized over a wide range of strain rates, ranging from 10−3 s−1 to 104 s−1 . The ability of HSLA-100 steel to store energy of cold work in adiabatic conditions is assessed through the direct measurement of the fraction of plastic energy converted into heat. The susceptibility of HSLA-100 steel to failure due to the formation and development of adiabatic shear bands (ASB) is investigated from two perspectives, the well-accepted failure strain criterion and the newly suggested plastic energy criterion [1]. Our experimental results show that HSLA-100 steel has apparent strain rate sensitivity at rates exceeding 3000 s−1 and has minimal ability to store energy of cold work at high deformation rate. In addition, both strain based and energy based failure criteria are effective in describing the propensity of HSLA-100 steel to dynamic failure (adiabatic shear band). Finally, we use the experimental results to determine constants for a Johnson-Cook model describing the constitutive response of HSLA-100. The implementation of this model in a commercial finite element code gives predictions capturing properly the observed experimental behavior. High-strain rate, thermomechanical processes, constitutive behavior, failure, finite elements, Kolsky bar, HSLA-100.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Geometry and dimensions (mm) of the shear compression specimens

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Figure 2

Infrared detector and optical system integrated with SHPB

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Figure 3

Quasi-static stress-strain response of HSLA-100 at a strain rate of 10−3 s−1

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Figure 4

Stress-strain response of HSLA-100 steel for strain rates ranging between 2200 s−1 and 13,500 s−1 . Results above 4000 s−1 are obtained on SCS specimens.

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Figure 5

Stress-strain response of HSLA-100 steel as obtained from cylindrical and shear compression specimens for two strain rates ranges: (a) 3000 s−1 and (b) 4000 s−1

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Figure 6

Flow stress at 0.1 plastic strain as a function of strain rate

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Figure 7

Evolution of the fraction of plastic work converted into heat β with strain and strain rate for HSLA-100 steel

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Figure 8

Force evolution with time during the deformation of HSLA-100 steel SCS specimens at strain rates of (a) 4000 s−1 , (b) 6600 s−1 , and (c) 13,500 s−1

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Figure 9

SEM image of the localized shear band for a shear compression specimen loaded at a strain rate of 5000 s−1 , showing (a) the gage section and the undeformed region and (b) a closer view revealing the texture of the shear band and the undeformed zone

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Figure 10

Case of a SCS specimen with a gage width of 0.5 mm tested at a strain rate of 6600 s−1 . (a) The plastic strains and (b) the temperature distribution are obtained, respectively, at a plane lying 0.2 mm parallel to the groove traction free surface. These contours show significant strain localization whilst the average plastic strain in the gage area is 0.3.

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Figure 11

Loading history observed for a SCS specimen tested at 4000 s−1 strain rate, showing (a) the velocity profiles at the ends of the specimen and (b) the stress-strain response measured during the test

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Figure 12

(a) Plastic energy density and (b) failure strain at the onset of failure due to shear band formation. Both quantities variations are expressed in function of the strain rate.



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