Research Papers

Thin-Film Gauges Using Carbon Nanotubes as Composite Layers

[+] Author and Article Information
Shrutidhara Sarma

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781 039, India
e-mail: s.shrutidhara@iitg.ernet.in

Niranjan Sahoo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781 039, India
e-mail: shock@iitg.ernet.in

Aynur Unal

Visiting Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781 039, India
e-mail: aynurunal@iitg.ernet.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 22, 2015; final manuscript received May 25, 2016; published online July 29, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Irene Beyerlein.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 138(4), 041014 (Jul 29, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-15-1199; doi: 10.1115/1.4033909 History: Received August 22, 2015; Revised May 25, 2016

Measurement of transient temperature and heat flux has attained enormous importance with the recent advancement in technology. Certain situations demand transient measurements to be performed for extremely short durations (approximately few seconds) which in turn call for sensors capable of responding within microseconds or even less. Thin-film gauges (TFGs), a particular class of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are such kind of sensors which are suitable for above requirements due to their quick and precise measurements in transient environments. The present work aims at designing an in-house fabrication and calibration of fast response TFG prepared by depositing nanocarbon layer on silver films as a laminated composite topping to enhance thermal and electrical properties. A significant improvement in the thermal and electrical conductivity of the composite sensor is observed when compared to gauges made from pure metals.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Schultz, D. L. , and Jones, T. V. , 1973, “ Heat Transfer Measurements in Short Duration Hypersonic Facilities,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France, NATO Report No. AGARDograph-AG-165.
Sahoo, N. , Saravanan, S. , Jagadeesh, G. , and Reddy, K. P. J. , 2006, “ Simultaneous Measurement of Aerodynamic and Heat Transfer Data for Large Angle Blunt Cones in Hypersonic Shock Tunnel,” Sadhana, 31(5), pp. 557–581. [CrossRef]
Henze, M. , Bogdanic, L. , Muehlbauer, K. , and Schnieder, M. , 2013, “ Effect of the Biot Number on Metal Temperature of Thermal Barrier Coated Turbine Parts—Real Engine Measurements,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(3), p. 031029. [CrossRef]
Patil, P. S. , Belsare, S. N. , and Borse, S. L. , 2012, “ Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Heat Transfer Rate to Improve Engine Efficiency, Specific Power & Combustion Performance Prediction,” Int. J. Mech. Eng. Technol., 3(2), pp. 447–752.
Cook, W. J. , and Felderman, E. J. , 1966, “ Reduction of Data From Thin-Film Heat Transfer Gages: A Concise Numerical Technique,” AIAA J., 4(3), pp. 561–562. [CrossRef]
Taler, J. , 1996, “ Theory of Transient Experimental Techniques for Surface Heat Transfer,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(17), pp. 3733–3748. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. , Xu, X. , and Choi, S. U. S. , 1999, “ Thermal Conductivity of Nanoparticle-Fluid Mixture,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 13(4), pp. 474–480. [CrossRef]
Kulkarni, M. R. , and Brady, R. P. , 1997, “ A Model of Global Thermal Conductivity in Laminated Carbon/Carbon Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 57(3), pp. 277–285. [CrossRef]
Gan, Y. , Lee, D. , Chen, X. , and Kysar, J. W. , 2005, “ Structure and Properties of Electrocodeposited Cu–Al2O3 Nanocomposite Thin Films,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 127(4), pp. 451–456. [CrossRef]
Balakrishnan, A. , and Saha, M. C. , 2011, “ Processing and Characterization of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposite Thin Films,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 133(12), p. 011012. [CrossRef]
Misak, H. E. , Widener, C. A. , Burford, D. A. , and Asmatulu, R. , 2014, “ Fabrication and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Into 2024-T3 Al Substrates Via Friction Stir Welding Process,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 136(2), p. 024501. [CrossRef]
Tomar, V. , and Samvedi, V. , 2011, “ Correlation of Thermal Conduction Properties With Mechanical Deformation Characteristics of a Set of SiC–Si3N4 Nanocomposites,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 133(1), p. 011013. [CrossRef]
Hossain, M. E. , Hossain, M. K. , Hosur, M. V. , and Jeelani, S. , 2015, “ Effect of Dispersion Conditions on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber–Polyester Nanocomposites,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 137(3), p. 031005. [CrossRef]
Hwang, Y. J. , Ahn, Y. C. , Shin, H. S. , Lee, C. G. , Kim, G. T. , Park, H. S. , and Lee, J. K. , 2006, “ Investigation on Characteristics of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Nanofluids,” Curr. Appl. Phys., 6(6), pp. 1068–1071. [CrossRef]
Unal, A. , and Herrmann, G. , 1975, “ On the Effect of Bonding in a Laminated Composite,” Department of Applied Mechanics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Report No. SUDAM-75-2.
Kumar, R. , and Sahoo, N. , 2012, “ Design, Fabrication and Sensitivity Analysis of the Resistance Temperature Detector Thin Film Sensors,” Int. J. Mech. Ind. Eng., 2(4), pp. 20–25.
Kinnear, K. M. , and Lu, F. K. , 1999, “ Characterization of Thin-Film Heat-Flux Gauges,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 13(4), pp. 548–549. [CrossRef]
Liu, M. S. , Lin, M. C. C. , Huang, I . T. , and Wang, C. C. , 2005, “ Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity With Carbon Nanotube for Nanofluids,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 32(9), pp. 1202–1210. [CrossRef]
Kakac, C. , and Pramuanjaroenkij, A. , 2009, “ Review of Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement With Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(13–14), pp. 3187–3196. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. Q. , and Mujumdar, A. S. , 2007, “ Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids: A Review,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 46(1), pp. 1–19. [CrossRef]
Kumar, R. , Sahoo, N. , and Kulkarni, V. , 2012, “ Conduction Based Calibration of Handmade Platinum Thin Film Heat Transfer Gauges for Transient Measurements,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(9), pp. 2707–2713. [CrossRef]
Kumar, R. , Sahoo, N. , Kulkarni, V. , and Singh, A. , 2011, “ Laser Based Calibration Technique of Thin Film Gauges for Short Duration Transient Measurements,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 3(4), p. 044504. [CrossRef]
Kant, R. , and Joshi, S. N. , 2013, “ Finite Element Simulation of Laser Assisted Bending With Moving Mechanical Load,” Int. J. Mechatron. Manuf. Syst., 6(4), pp. 351–366.
Ghatak, A. , 2009, Optics, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India.
Steen, W. , Watkins, K. G. , and Mazumdaer, J. , 2010, Laser Material Processing, 4th, ed., Springer Science & Business Media, London.
Kumar, R. , Jayesh, P. , and Sahoo, N. , 2012, “ Analysis of One Dimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Problem: A Review,” Int. J. Mech. Ind. Eng., 2(1), pp. 2231–2239.
Holman, J. P. , 1986, Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapore.
Tritt, T. M. , 2006, Thermal Conductivity: Theory, Properties, and Applications, Springer, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Laminated composite made of silver and CNT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of a vacuum coating chamber

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A typical TFG and its components

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

An oil-bath calibration experimental setup for determination of TCR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Static calibration curves through oil-bath calibration experiments: (a) pure silver gauge, (b) NC gauge, and (c) pure gold gauge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The laser-based experimental setup for calibration of heat loads for TFGs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic of the laser beam showing Gaussian distribution of input heat flux

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Sample voltage signals obtained from all TFGs while exposed to impulse heat load (20 W) from laser source

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sample surface heat flux recovered from the temperature history of TFGs subjected to an impulse input of 20 W from a laser source: (a) Ag TFG, (b) NC TFG, (c) Au TFG, and (d) all three TFGs juxtaposed together



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In