Research Papers

Hybrid Hollow Microlattices With Unique Combination of Stiffness and Damping

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Salari-Sharif

Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering Department,
University of California, Irvine,
Irvine, CA 92697
e-mail: lsalaris@uci.edu

T. A. Schaedler

Sensors and Materials Lab,
HRL Laboratories, LLC,
Malibu, CA 90265
e-mail: taschaedler@hrl.com

L. Valdevit

Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering Department,
University of California, Irvine,
Irvine, CA 92697
e-mail: valdevit@uci.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 25, 2017; final manuscript received October 11, 2017; published online February 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Curt Bronkhorst.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 140(3), 031003 (Feb 14, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1177; doi: 10.1115/1.4038672 History: Received June 25, 2017; Revised October 11, 2017

Hybrid micro-architected materials with unique combinations of high stiffness, high damping, and low density are presented. We demonstrate a scalable manufacturing process to fabricate hollow microlattices with a sandwich wall architecture comprising an elastomeric core and metallic skins. In this configuration, the metallic skins provide stiffness and strength, whereas the elastomeric core provides constrained-layer damping. This damping mechanism is effective under any strain amplitude, and at any relative density, in stark contrast with the structural damping mechanism exhibited by ultralight metallic or ceramic architected materials, which requires large strain and densities lower than a fraction of a percent. We present an analytical model for stiffness and constrained-layer damping of hybrid hollow microlattices, and verify it with finite elements simulations and experimental measurements. Subsequently, this model is adopted in optimal design studies to identify hybrid microlattice geometries which provide ideal combinations of high stiffness and damping and low density. Finally, a previously derived analytical model for structural damping of ultralight metallic microlattices is extended to hybrid lattices and used to show that ultralight hybrid designs are more efficient than purely metallic ones.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Damping , Stiffness , Polymers
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Fig. 1

Schematic of the unit cell of a hybrid (metal/polymer/metal) lattice

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the proposed fabrication process for hybrid hollow microlattice materials, (b) octahedral unit cell topology and defining dimensional parameters, and (c) a sample of a tetrahedral hybrid hollow microlattice

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Fig. 3

(a) Length and angle measurements of hybrid hollow microlattices via a Dino digital microscope; (b) and (c) variations in polymer layer thickness of bar walls measured by scanning electron microscopy at two locations on a single cross section of the same bar

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Fig. 4

Schematic of the deformation of a lattice unit cell under uniaxial external compression, combined with the free-body diagram of a single bar in the unit cell. The bar undergoes a combination of transverse shear load, axial load, and bending moment.

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Fig. 5

Load and boundary conditions on (a) single bar and (b) single unit cell

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Fig. 6

Maximum principal strain in the TPU layer under lattice compression: (a, b) single bar analysis and (c, d) unit cell analysis. Results are provided for sample A (a, c) and sample B (b, d).

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Fig. 7

(a) Laser Doppler vibrometer (PSV-500), (b) single bar in cantilever mode, and (c) single unit cell under uniaxial loading

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Fig. 8

Frequency response of (a) aluminum base, (b) hybrid bar, and (c) hybrid bar with respect to aluminum base excitation by applying H1 transfer function

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Fig. 9

Decoupling of the first two resonant modes

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Fig. 10

Damping coefficients extracted from the frequency response (measured by laser Doppler vibrometry) using the curve fit method for a single hybrid bar: (a) first mode and (b) second mode

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Fig. 11

Damping coefficient of (a) hybrid tetrahedral half unit cell and (b) a nickel tetrahedral half unit cell with the same geometry, extracted from the frequency response (measured by laser Doppler vibrometry)

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Fig. 12

(a) The deformed shaped of hybrid hollow cantilever bar captured by FE simulations. The contours show the Mises stress distribution in the metallic layer. (b) Force–displacement curve for a loading–unloading cycle, with the shaded area representing the energy dissipated in one cycle.

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Fig. 13

(a) Map of achievable |E*|1/3 tan  δ/ρ of hybrid microlattices with four different polymers and ((b)–(e)) optimal lattice dimensions, which are essentially identical for all polymers

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Fig. 14

Young's modulus versus (a) density and (b) loss factor for hybrid hollow microlattices with four different polymers

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Fig. 15

(a) Material index (|E*|1/3/ρ) versus loss factor and (b) Young's modulus versus density, comparing bulk nickel, bulk TPU, nickel microlattice, TPU microlattice, Reuss composite, Voigt composite, and hybrid microlattices with two different constraints (tp/tm<10 and tp/tm<25)

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Fig. 16

Map of achievable dissipated energy in hybrid microlattices for the four different polymers, compared to nickel microlattices

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Fig. 17

Optimal dimensions for hybrid lattices that maximize dissipated energy, ΔU



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