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Research Papers

The Rapid Cooling Effect on Microstructure of Nickel-Based Alloys Welding Joint

[+] Author and Article Information
LiBing Zhao, Zelong Wang, Jianing Qi, Yunfeng Lei, Meng He

School of Materials Science and Engineering,
Hebei University of Technology,
Tianjin 300130, China

Zhentai Zheng

School of Materials Science and Engineering,
Hebei University of Technology,
Tianjin 300130, China
e-mail: zzt@hebut.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 8, 2017; final manuscript received May 9, 2018; published online February 13, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Khaled Morsi.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(2), 021011 (Feb 13, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1258; doi: 10.1115/1.4040333 History: Received September 08, 2017; Revised May 09, 2018

Fusion welding of nickel-based alloys is often associated with coarse grains and severe segregation, which finally results in the increase of hot cracking susceptibility and poor mechanical properties. Conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) can aggravate these phenomena, which is mainly due to its high heat input and low cooling rate. In this paper, the cooling rate was enhanced by spraying liquid nitrogen during the welding process. Compared to conventional GTAW, the rapid cooling produced narrower heat affected zone (HAZ) width and more equiaxed grains in the fusion zone, thus higher hardness distribution was also achieved in this condition. In addition, γ′ phase exhibited a dispersed distribution, and segregation has been improved. The results show that the HAZ width is decreased by about 50%, and the fusion zone consisting of the finest equiaxed grains and the lowest segregation was obtained, when the heat sink located on one side 10 mm away from the weld centerline. Also, fine equiaxed grains and the dispersed distribution of γ′ phase could improve the grain boundary strength and reduce the incidence of liquid films along grain boundaries, contributing to prevent nickel-based alloys welding hot cracking from initiating.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental configuration used for GTAW under liquid nitrogen cooling: (a) heat sink located on one side and (b) heat sink located on rear side

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Fig. 2

Micrographs of the welding joints when the heat sink locates on one side: (a) conventional GTAW, (b) 10 mm, (c) 15 mm, (d) 20 mm, (e) 30 mm, and the heat sink locates on rear side (f) 20 mm

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Fig. 3

Cross-sectional photographs of the welding joints when the heat sink locates on one side: (a) conventional GTAW, (b) 10 mm, (c) 15 mm, (d) 20 mm, (e) 30 mm, and the heat sink locates on rear side, (f) 20 mm, (g) 30 mm, and (h) 40 mm

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Fig. 4

Micrographs of the region near the fusion boundary when the heat sink locates one side: (a) conventional GTAW, (b) 10 mm, (c) 15 mm, (d) 20 mm, (e) 30 mm, and (f) high magnification microstructure of Site 1 in Fig. 4(b)

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Fig. 5

Micrographs of the fusion zone with the distance 2.5 mm away from the fusion boundary when the heat sink locates on one side: (a) conventional GTAW, (b) 10 mm, (c) 15 mm, (d) 20 mm, (e) 30 mm, and (f) high magnification microstructure of Site 1 in Fig. 5(d)

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Fig. 6

Micrographs of the weld center when the heat sink locates on one side: (a) conventional GTAW, (b) 10 mm, (c) 15 mm, (d) 20 mm, and (e) 30 mm

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Fig. 7

Micrographs of the fusion zone with the distance 2.5 mm away from the fusion boundary when the heat sink locates on rear side: (a) 20 mm, (b) 30 mm, (c) 40 mm; and the corresponding weld center micrographs, (d) 20 mm, (e) 30 mm, and (f) 40 mm

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Fig. 8

Scanning electron microscope analysis of weld centers under different cooling processes: (a) conventional GTAW, (b), (c) heat sink located on one side 10 mm and 20 mm, respectively, and (d) heat sink located on rear side 20 mm

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Fig. 9

XRD of matrix phase

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Fig. 10

Energy disperse spectroscopy of (a) γ′ phase, (b) Ti(C,N) compound, and (c) matrix phase

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Fig. 11

Ti mass fraction distribution in the fusion zone under different cooling processes: (a) conventional GTAW, (b), (c) heat sink located on one side 10 mm and 20 mm, respectively, and (d) heat sink located on rear side 20 mm

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Fig. 12

Hardness distribution in the cross section of welding joints under different cooling processes: (a) heat sink located on one side and (b) heat sink located on rear side

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