Research Papers

Mechanical Behavior of Differently Oriented Electron Beam Melting Ti–6Al–4V Components Using Digital Image Correlation

[+] Author and Article Information
Edel Arrieta

W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: egarrieta@utep.edu

Mohammad Haque, Calvin Stewart

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968

Jorge Mireles, Ryan. B. Wicker

W. M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968

Cesar Carrasco

Future Aerospace Science and Technology
Center (FAST),
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 16, 2017; final manuscript received May 29, 2018; published online July 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Khaled Morsi.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(1), 011004 (Jul 10, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1172; doi: 10.1115/1.4040553 History: Received June 16, 2017; Revised May 29, 2018

Mechanical properties of additive manufactured metal components can be affected by the orientation of the layer deposition. In this investigation, Ti–6Al–4V cylindrical specimens were fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) at four different build angles (0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg) and tested as per ASTM E8 Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. With the layer-by-layer fabrication suggesting granting anisotropic properties to the builds, strain fields were recorded by digital image correlation (DIC) in the search for shear effects under uniaxial loads. For the validation of this measuring method, axial strains were measured with a clip extensometer and a virtual extensometer, simultaneously. Failure analysis of the specimens at different orientations was conducted to evidence the recording of shear strain fields. The failure analysis included fractography, optical micrographs of the microstructure distribution, and failure profiles displaying different failure features associated with the layering orientation. Additionally, an experimental study case of how the failure mode of components can potentially be designed from the fabrication process is presented. At the end, remarks about the shear effects found, and an insight of the possibility of designing components by failure for safer structures are discussed.

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Fig. 1

Rendering of build-angles (a) 90 deg, (b) 60 deg, (c) 30 deg, and (d) 0 deg. XZ defines the powder bed plane.

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Fig. 2

(a) 30 deg bulk cylindrical bar and support; machined ASTM E8 specimen (b) with speckle pattern (c)

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Fig. 3

Tensile stress–strain of specimens fabricated at (a) 0 deg, (b) 30 deg, (c) 60 deg, and (d) 90 deg

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Fig. 4

Tensile stress–strain curve of the median specimens at different build direction

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Fig. 5

(a) Fractographs of a 0 deg specimen with final rupture region; (b) void from a sintered powder particle; (c) SEM fracture surface; and (d) fracture surface perspective from a 20 deg arrow pointing at a prominent crest

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Fig. 6

Bimodal microstructure of a 30 deg specimen on the XY plane

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Fig. 7

Longitudinal failure profiles of specimens oriented at (a) 0 deg, (b) 30 deg, (c) 60 deg, and (d) 90 deg; arrows pointing to the build direction and stripes indicating the layering pattern

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Fig. 8

Flaws with sintered material in (a) 30 deg and (b) 60 deg specimens. Internal flaws in (c) 30 deg and (d) 90 deg specimens.

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Fig. 9

Maximum shear strains recorded on (a) 30 deg and (b) 60 deg specimens

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Fig. 10

(a) Failed specimen; (b) magnified image at the center of the fracture surface displaying two different failure modes; and (c) fractography with mixed ductile and brittle features



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