Research Papers

On Mechanical Properties of Cellular Steel Solids With Shell-Like Periodic Architectures Fabricated by Selective Laser Sintering

[+] Author and Article Information
Oraib Al-Ketan

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates

Reza Rowshan

Core Technology Platforms,
New York University Abu Dhabi,
Abu Dhabi 129188, United Arab Emirates

Anthony N. Palazotto

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Air Force Institute of Technology,
WPAFB, OH 45433-7765

Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub

Mechanical Engineering Department;Aerospace Engineering Department,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates
e-mails: rashid.abualrub@ku.ac.ae;

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 9, 2018; final manuscript received October 17, 2018; published online January 31, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Anastasia Muliana.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(2), 021009 (Jan 31, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: MATS-18-1163; doi: 10.1115/1.4041874 History: Received June 09, 2018; Revised October 17, 2018

Historically, the approach in material selection was to find the proper material that serves a specific application. Recently, a new approach is implemented such that materials are being architected and topologically tailored to deliver a specific functionality. Periodic cellular materials are increasingly gaining interest due to their tunable structure-related properties. However, the concept of structure–property relationship is not fully employed due to limitations in manufacturing capabilities. Nowadays, additive manufacturing (AM) techniques are facilitating the fabrication of complex structures with high control over the topology. In this work, the mechanical properties of additively manufactured periodic metallic cellular materials are investigated. The presented cellular materials comprise a shell-like topology based on the mathematically known triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS). Maraging steel samples with different topologies and relative densities have been fabricated using the powder bed fusion selective laser sintering (SLS) technique, and three-dimensional printing quality was assessed by means of electron microscopy. Samples were tested in compression and the compressive mechanical properties have been deduced. Effects of changing layer thickness and postprocessing such as heat treatment are discussed. Results showed that the diamond TPMS lattice has shown superior mechanical properties among the examined topologies.

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Fig. 1

Triply periodic minimal surfaces are employed to create lattices: (a) sheet-networks and solid-networks lattices, (b) in the first column TPMS are presented, in the second column, a computer-aided design (CAD) of single unit cell created using the sheet-networks strategy is shown. Finally, the last column shows a pattern of 3 × 3 × 3 unit cells for each lattice.

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Fig. 2

Size and shape distribution of the gas atomized Maraging steel powder

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Fig. 3

As-built 3D printed samples with layer thickness of 40μm

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Fig. 4

(a) Designed versus actual 3D printed relative density of the different lattices and (b) design chart for the different TPMS structures, where the designed relative density is linked to the thickness to unit cell size ratio

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Fig. 5

Scanning electron microscopy images used to assess the quality of 3D printing and process-related observations

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Fig. 6

Slices of reconstructed CT-scan images for the different lattices showing internal structural defects

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Fig. 7

Periodicity, anisotropy, intrinsic, and extrinsic size effects were investigated: (a) extrinsic and (b) intrinsic sizes are shown, (c) stress–strain response of a number of samples with fixed unit cell size and varied sample size, (d) stress–strain response of a number of samples with fixed sample size and varied unit cell size. Quantitative mechanical properties extracted from the stress–strain responses, namely, the peak strength and Young's modulus for (e) the extrinsic size effect and (f) the intrinsic size effect.

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Fig. 8

Lattices printed with layer thickness of 100 μm

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Fig. 9

Effect of changing layer thickness on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the 3D printed lattices

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Fig. 10

A typical stress–strain response of the metallic lattices with testing images showing deformation evolution at different levels of strain

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Fig. 11

Deformation of the lattices at different strains, namely, (a) ε = 0%, (b) ε = 10%, and (c) ε = 35%

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Fig. 12

Stress–strain response for different relative densities of the investigated TPMS-based lattices: (a) gyroid, (b) primitive, (c)IWP, and (d) diamond

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Fig. 13

Mechanical properties of the lattices as function of the actual relative density: (a) compressive Young's modulus, (b) compressive strength, and (c) toughness until 25% strain

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Fig. 14

Effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties: (a) stress–strain response of the heat treated sample as compared to other nonheat treated samples, (b) the compressive Young's modulus, compressive strength, and toughness till 25% strain are deduced from the stress–strain response in (a), and (c) failure mechanism of the tested sample showing catastrophic failure along a shear band



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