Research Papers

Effect of Underloads on Plasticity-Induced Crack Closure: A Numerical Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
F. V. Antunes

CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Coimbra Rua Luís Reis Santos,
Pinhal de Marrocos,
3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
e-mail: fernando.ventura@dem.uc.pt

L. Paiva

CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Coimbra Rua Luís Reis Santos,
Pinhal de Marrocos,
3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
e-mail: lribeiropaiva@gmail.com

R. Branco

CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra,
3030-129 Coimbra, Portugal
e-mail: ricardo.branco@dem.uc.pt

L. P. Borrego

CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra,
3030-129 Coimbra, Portugal
e-mail: borrego@isec.pt

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received May 10, 2017; final manuscript received February 12, 2019; published online March 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Antonios Kontsos.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(3), 031008 (Mar 11, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1133; doi: 10.1115/1.4042865 History: Received May 10, 2017; Accepted February 12, 2019

The effect of underloads is mostly quantified by the averaged effect on the fatigue crack growth rate, and the transient behavior is rarely investigated. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanisms behind the effect of underloads, periodic underloads, and underloads combined with overloads. A single underload smashes the material around the crack tip, producing a depression on crack flank and a local reduction of contact forces at the minimum load. The reduction of plastic elongation behind the crack tip has an immediate effect on crack opening level, which rapidly disappears with crack propagation. The smashing associated with the compressive force occurs mainly behind the crack tip position where the underload was applied. The effect of the underload is intimately linked to reversed plastic deformation, which explains its enhanced effect for kinematic hardening. The decrease of load below the minimum baseline load is the main loading parameter. The application of periodic underloads extends the effect of a single underload. The effect of the underload is enhanced by the presence of obstacles in the form of residual plastic deformation, which explains the great effect of underloads applied after overloads.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Crack opening level versus crack increment (plane stress and node 1)

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Fig. 2

Load pattern: (a) single underload, (b) periodic underloads, and (c) overload–underload pattern

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Fig. 1

Model of M(T) specimen: (a) frontal view, (b) plane strain state, (c) plane stress state, and (d) finite element mesh

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Fig. 7

Stabilization distance versus underload range, ΔKUL2 = KmaxKUL

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Fig. 6

(a) Maximum decrease of crack opening level versus ΔKUL(=KminKUL) and (b) maximum decrease of crack opening level versus Kmax (plane stress)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Crack opening levels for different single underloads and (b) difference between the constant amplitude values and the postunderload crack opening values

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Fig. 4

(a) Crack profile (plane stress, F = 40 N) and (b) contact forces at minimum load

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Fig. 8

Influence of hardening model on crack opening levels

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Fig. 9

Periodic underloads; UL_0_140_N100: (a) crack profile (40 µm between underloads, plane stress) and (b) contact stresses at minimum load

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Fig. 10

Crack opening level (five crack increments among underloads, plane stress, and node 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Underload after an overload: (a) crack opening levels (plane stress and node 1) and (b) variation of crack closure with the application of an underload

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Fig. 12

Crack opening values: (a) FEM results and (b) prediction model



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