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Research Papers

Mechanical Characterization and Modeling of Direct Metal Laser Sintered Stainless Steel GP1

[+] Author and Article Information
Sanna F. Siddiqui

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mails: sanna.siddiqui@knights.ucf.edu; ssiddiqui@floridapoly.edu

Abiodun A. Fasoro

Department of Manufacturing Engineering,
Central State University,
Wilberforce, OH 45384
e-mail: afasoro@tnstate.edu

Calvin Cole

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: carl.cole18@Knights.ucf.edu

Ali P. Gordon

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: ali.gordon@ucf.edu

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Mechanical Engineering Department, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL 33805.

3Present address: Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received February 5, 2018; final manuscript received February 7, 2019; published online March 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Harley Johnson.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(3), 031009 (Mar 11, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: MATS-18-1032; doi: 10.1115/1.4042867 History: Received February 05, 2018; Accepted February 11, 2019

The additive manufacturing (AM) process is unique in that it can facilitate anisotropy because of the layer-by-layer deposition technique intrinsic to this process. In order to develop a component for a desired application, it is necessary to understand the mechanics that facilitate this material behavior. This study investigates how build orientation affects the mechanical performance of as-built direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) stainless steel (SS) GP1 (also referred to as 17-4PH) through strain-controlled monotonic tension and completely reversed low-cycle fatigue (LCF) testing. The anisotropic behavior of DMLS SS GP1 is assessed for samples built along the horizontal plane. Fracture surfaces were found to exhibit ductile responses that were consistent with the σε curves. Constitutive models (i.e., Ramberg–Osgood, Hahn) based upon linear elasticity and nonlinear plasticity are presented and used to simulate the monotonic discontinuous stress–strain yielding response of this material, which are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. A collection of low-cycle fatigue tests reveals initial strain hardening to stabilization, followed by softening to fracture. Tensile and fatigue material constants determined from experimental findings are also presented in this study. Plasticity effects on the life of varying build orientations are explored.

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References

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Siddiqui, S. F., O'Nora, N., Fasoro, A., and Gordon, A. P., 2017, “Modeling the Influence of Build Orientation on the Monontonic and Cyclic Response of Additively Manufactured Stainless Steel GP1/17-4PH,” Proceedings of the ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Tampa, FL, Nov. 3–9, IMECE2017-71561.
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ASTM, 2015, “Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM E8 / E8M-15a
Siddiqui, S.F. 2018, “Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Performance of As-Built Additively Manufactured Metals,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Central Florida, pp. 1–266.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

DMLS SS GP1 sample manufactured: (a) sample design for DMLS manufacturing [14], (b) support structure of sample, (c) layout of as-built DMLS manufactured SS GP1 samples on build plate with numbering [14], and (d) experimental setup for tension and fatigue testing [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

As-built DMLS SS GP1: (a) Image of delamination present in support structure of DMLS SS GP1 samples, (b) bottom view showing boxed support structure, (c) specimen after support structure removal, (d) specimen after filing sample to remove support structure remnants, and (e) final test sample, in which concentricity of sample is evident after machining of gripping sections [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Tensile response of DMLS SS GP1 samples manufactured for varying build orientations within the xy build plane [14]. (b) Bar chart representing average tensile strength properties and associated standard deviation for specimens manufactured in the xy horizontal build plane.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Peak-valley stress history for various orientations for DMLS SS GP1, (b) Fracture fatigue surface for sample 1 (x), (c) Fracture fatigue surface for sample 6 (xy45 deg), and (d) Fracture fatigue surface for sample 8 (y) [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Progression in hysteresis curves for x-oriented sample. (b) Progression in hysteresis curves for y-oriented sample. (c) First cycle stress–strain hysteresis curves with tension curves for x-oriented sample. (d) First cycle stress–strain hysteresis curves with tension curves for xy45 deg orientation. (e) First cycle stress–strain hysteresis curves with tension curves for the y-orientation. (f) First cycle stress–strain hysteresis curves for varying build orientation [14].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stabilized hysteresis curves for varying build orientations from this study [14] and Yadollahi et al. [9]

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Fig. 7

Fracture tensile surfaces: (a) sample 3 (−5 deg from x-axis), (b) sample 5 manufactured at 45 deg in the xy build plane, and (c) sample 9 (−5 deg from y-axis) [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Ramberg–Osgood modeling of tensile response (ε˙=0.001mm/mms) of DMLS stainless steel GP1 manufactured: (a) x-orientation, (b) y-orientation, and (c) comparison of monotonic and cyclic response from this study [14] and Yadollahi et al. [9]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Flowchart of optimization for Hahn constants [14]

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Fig. 10

(a) Hahn modeling (solid and dashed lines) of tensile response (squares and circles) of DMLS stainless steel GP1 manufactured at −5 deg from the x-axis [14], (b) Hahn modeling (solid and dashed lines) of tensile response (squares and circles) of DMLS stainless steel GP1 manufactured at 45 deg in the xy plane [14], (c) Hahn modeling (solid and dashed lines) of tensile response (squares and circles) of DMLS stainless steel GP1 manufactured at −5 deg from the y-axis [14].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of actual/experimental to predicted/modeled stress (UYS: upper yield strength; LYS: lower yield strength) using the Hahn model, for samples manufactured along the X (−5 deg from the x-axis), Y (−5 deg from the y-axis), and XY45 deg (45 deg in the xy build plane) orientations [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Young's Modulus variation with build orientation for DMLS SS GP1 samples manufactured in xy build plane [14]

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