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Research Papers

Numerical Investigation of the Origin of Anomalous Tensile Twinning in Magnesium Alloys

[+] Author and Article Information
K. V. Vaishakh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: vaishakhkvt@iisc.ac.in

N. Subrahmanya Prasad

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: nsprasad07@gmail.com

R. Narasimhan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: narasi@iisc.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received September 20, 2018; final manuscript received February 1, 2019; published online March 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: José A. Rodríguez-Martínez.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(3), 031010 (Mar 11, 2019) (15 pages) Paper No: MATS-18-1263; doi: 10.1115/1.4042868 History: Received September 20, 2018; Accepted February 11, 2019

It has been observed that tension twins (TTs) are triggered in rolled polycrystalline magnesium alloys under tensile loading applied along the rolling direction (RD) or the transverse direction. This is surprising because these alloys have a near-basal texture, and TTs would therefore cause extension (instead of contraction) along the normal direction. In this work, the origin of these anomalous TTs is first examined by performing crystal plasticity-based finite element simulations using model textures, wherein the c-axis in one grain is systematically tilted toward the loading direction (RD), with the other grains maintained in ideal basal orientation. It is shown that strong basal slip is triggered in the former, which through its effect on the local stress distribution plays a catalytic role in activating TTs. The above behavior is also observed in a simulation performed with an actual texture pertaining to a rolled AZ31 Mg alloy. Most importantly, when basal slip is suppressed, evolution of TTs is found to be very much retarded. The present results corroborate well with experimental observations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) In-plane view of the polycrystalline tension specimen analyzed in this work along with the finite element mesh, (b) Enlarged in-plane view of a grain with dimensions, and (c) (0001) Equal area pole figure of the model textures. Note that the lattice is randomly rotated about the c-axis in each grain to generate a polycrystal.

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Fig. 2

Schmid factor bar chart for the various slip and twin systems pertaining to the grain G36 corresponding to simulations: (a) α0, (b) α15, (c) α30, (d) α45, and (e) Schmid factor scaled by corresponding CRSS values for each system for α30

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Fig. 3

Total accumulated basal slip contours on the front surface (X3 = +to/2) at a nominal strain of E2 = 0.03 for (a) α15 and (b) α30

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Fig. 4

Total accumulated basal slip contours at a nominal strain of E2 = 0.07 on the specimen front surface for (a) α15, (b) α30, and (c) α45

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Fig. 5

Total accumulated prismatic slip contours at a nominal strain of E2 = 0.07 on the specimen front surface for (a) α15, (b) α30, (c) α45, and (d) α30 with basal slip suppressed

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Fig. 6

Net tensile twin volume fraction contours on the specimen front surface at a nominal strain of E2 = 0.03 for (a) α15 and (b) α30

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Fig. 7

Net tensile twin volume fraction contours at a nominal strain of E2 = 0.07 on the specimen front surface for (a) α15, (b) α30, and (c) α45

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Fig. 8

Net tensile twin volume fraction contours at a nominal strain of E2 = 0.07 on the specimen front surface from simulations with basal slip suppressed corresponding to (a) α15 and (b) α30

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Fig. 9

Contours at a nominal strain E2 = 0.03 on the specimen front surface for α30 of (a) σ22 and (b) σ11 stress components

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Fig. 10

Line scan of normalized stress σ222, where Σ2 is the macroscopic longitudinal stress, depicting the SCF taken along the line CD (at E2 = 0.01) which traverses the GB of the grain G36 (see inset diagram) corresponding to the case α30. The distance along CD is normalized by lg.

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Fig. 11

Evolution histories of macroscopic net: (a) basal slip and (b) tensile twin volume fraction with E2 corresponding to grain G36 for various α values and θ30. Results pertaining to simulations for α15 and α30 with basal slip suppressed are also shown in (b).

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Fig. 12

(a) Pole figures corresponding to the actual texture of a rolled AZ31 Mg alloy generated from electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) data extracted from 6041 grains [10] and (b) pole figures pertaining to texture data employed in the simulation with 71 grains

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Fig. 13

(a) In-plane view of the polycrystalline tension specimen analyzed along with the finite element mesh and (b) (0001) equal area discrete pole figure depicting the lattice orientations of the five grains marked in (a)

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Fig. 14

Comparison of macroscopic nominal tensile stress versus strain response corresponding to a rolled AZ31 alloy as predicted by the polycrystalline finite element simulation with experimental data [10]

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Fig. 15

Contours on the specimen front surface for the actual texture at E2 = 0.02 of total accumulated (a) basal slip, (b) tensile twin volume fraction, and (c) tensile twin volume fraction from the simulation with basal slip suppressed

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Fig. 16

Contours for the actual texture at E2 = 0.09 of (a) γb on the front surface, (b) γb on the back surface (X3 = −t0/2), (c) ftt on the front surface, (d) ftt on the back surface, (e) γp on the front surface, and (f) γp on the back surface

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Fig. 17

Contours of net tensile twin volume fraction and prismatic slip from the simulation with basal slip suppressed on the specimen front surface for the actual texture at E2 = 0.09

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Fig. 18

Evolution with respect to E2 of angle between the c-axis and (a) TD and (b) RD at the center of three grains

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Fig. 19

Contours of (a) σ22 and (b) σ11 for the actual texture on the specimen front surface at E2 = 0.02. Similar plots at a high E2 = 0.09 from the simulation with basal slip suppressed of (c) σ22 and (d) σ11 stress components.

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Fig. 20

Evolution histories with respect to E2 in different grains of macroscopic net: (a) basal slip, (b) tensile twin volume fraction, and (c) tensile twin volume fraction from the simulation with basal slip suppressed

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Fig. 21

Evolution histories of macroscopic relative slip and pseudo-slip activities with E2 for grains: (a) G54 and (b) G43

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