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Research Papers

Thermofluid Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Melt Pool in Powder-Bed Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
M Shafiqur Rahman

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Orleans,
2000 Lakeshore Drive,
New Orleans, LA 70148
e-mail: mrahman3@uno.edu

Paul J. Schilling

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Orleans,
2000 Lakeshore Drive,
New Orleans, LA 70148
e-mail: pschilli@uno.edu

Paul D. Herrington

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Orleans,
2000 Lakeshore Drive,
New Orleans, LA 70148
e-mail: pherring@uno.edu

Uttam K. Chakravarty

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Orleans,
2000 Lakeshore Drive,
New Orleans, LA 70148
e-mail: uchakrav@uno.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received December 20, 2017; final manuscript received March 18, 2019; published online April 23, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Harley Johnson.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 141(4), 041006 (Apr 23, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: MATS-17-1378; doi: 10.1115/1.4043342 History: Received December 20, 2017; Accepted March 26, 2019

Electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) is a powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) technology that can make full density metallic components using a layer-by-layer fabrication method. To build each layer, the EBAM process includes powder spreading, preheating, melting, and solidification. The quality of the build part, process reliability, and energy efficiency depends typically on the thermal behavior, material properties, and heat source parameters involved in the EBAM process. Therefore, characterizing those properties and understanding the correlations among the process parameters are essential to evaluate the performance of the EBAM process. In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with Ti-6Al-4V powder was developed incorporating the temperature-dependent thermal properties and a moving conical volumetric heat source with Gaussian distribution to conduct the simulations of the EBAM process. The melt pool dynamics and its thermal behavior were investigated numerically, and results for temperature profile, melt pool geometry, cooling rate and variation in density, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and enthalpy were obtained for several sets of electron beam specifications. Validation of the model was performed by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results for the size of the melt pool.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Physical domain of the 3D model with the electron beam travel specifications

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Fig. 2

Configuration of the 3D EBAM model and a magnified 2D representation in the X–Z plane

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Fig. 3

3D computational domain with structured mesh

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Fig. 4

2D view of the computational domain with structured mesh and boundary conditions

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Fig. 5

(a) Physical domain of the square cavity and (b) velocity streamlines inside the lid-driven square cavity for Re = 400

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Fig. 6

Comparison of ansys fluent results of u velocity with the benchmark case [56]

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Fig. 7

Comparison of ansys fluent results of v velocity with the benchmark case [56]

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Fig. 8

Validation of the CFD model by comparing with the experimental results [44] for the (a) variation of melt pool width with an increase in scanning speed and (b) variation of melt pool depth with an increase in scanning speed

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Fig. 9

Contour plot for temperature (K) at the scanning path of the beam at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 10

Contour plot for temperature (K) at the longitudinal section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 11

Contour plot for temperature (K) at the cross section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 12

Contour plot for density (kg/m3) at the longitudinal section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 13

Contour plot for density (kg/m3) at the cross section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 14

Contour plot for thermal conductivity (W/m K) at the longitudinal section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 15

Contour plot for specific heat (J/Kg K) at the longitudinal section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 16

Contour plot for enthalpy (J/kg) at the longitudinal section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 17

Contour plot for thermal conductivity (W/m k) at the cross section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 18

Contour plot for specific heat (J/kg K) at the cross section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 19

Contour plot for enthalpy (J/kg) at the cross section at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 20

Maximum length and width of the melt pool at t = 0.09 s as viewed from the top and bottom, respectively

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Fig. 21

Maximum depth of the melt pool at t = 0.09 s as viewed from the longitudinal section

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Fig. 22

Estimation of the melt pool size from the contour plot for temperature (K) on the scanning path of the beam at (a) 630 mm/s and (b) 930 mm/s

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Fig. 23

Variation of maximum width, depth, and length of the melt pool (mm) with the increase of the beam scanning speed (mm/s) at t = 0.09 s

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Fig. 24

Numerical result for the cooling rate at a point on the top surface for a beam scanning speed of 330 mm/s: (a) temperature distribution along time and (b) cooling rate along time

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