Abstract

This paper reports on the development of a novel soft robotic system for remote ultrasound applications. Direct contact of the ultrasound probe with the patient's body represents a safety risk and therefore control of the probe's positioning and applied force is a crucial task. The proposed robot uses a passive control system that provides safe interaction between the robot and the patient by leveraging soft robotics technology. The soft robot's structure can be considered as a nonlinear spring which can be designed to exert a safe force within the robot's workspace to guarantee the safety of human–robot interaction. The literature suggests that effective ultrasound imaging of both the heart and abdomen requires six degrees-of-freedom. These degrees-of-freedom consist of three translational motions, which are achieved using a novel hybrid soft cable-driven parallel robot, and three wrist motions, which is based on a universal joint design. The experimental results show that the robot can achieve all these six degrees-of-freedom, and its blocking force can be engineered to generate a uniform force within the workspace.

References

1.
Gong
,
Z.
,
Cheng
,
J.
,
Chen
,
X.
,
Sun
,
W.
,
Fang
,
X.
,
Hu
,
K.
,
Xie
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
T.
, and
Wen
,
L.
,
2018
, “
A Bio-Inspired Soft Robotic Arm: Kinematic Modeling and Hydrodynamic Experiments
,”
J. Bionic Eng.
,
15
(
2
), pp.
204
219
.10.1007/s42235-018-0016-x
2.
Goldfield
,
E. C.
,
Park
,
Y.-L.
,
Chen
,
B.-R.
,
Hsu
,
W.-H.
,
Young
,
D.
,
Wehner
,
M.
,
Kelty-Stephen
,
D. G.
, et al.,
2012
, “
Bio-Inspired Design of Soft Robotic Assistive Devices: The Interface of Physics, Biology, and Behavior
,”
Ecological Psychol.
,
24
(
4
), pp.
300
327
.10.1080/10407413.2012.726179
3.
Ashuri
,
T.
,
Armani
,
A.
,
Jalilzadeh Hamidi
,
R.
,
Reasnor
,
T.
,
Ahmadi
,
S.
, and
Iqbal
,
K.
,
2020
, “
Biomedical Soft Robots: Current Status and Perspective
,”
Biomed. Eng. Lett.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
369
385
.10.1007/s13534-020-00157-6
4.
Parsa
,
F.
,
Moghadam
,
A. A. A.
,
Stollberg
,
D.
,
Tekes
,
A.
,
Coates
,
C.
, and
Ashuri
,
T.
,
2022
, “
A Novel Soft Robotic Hand for Prosthetic Applications
,” IEEE 19th International Conference on Smart Communities: Improving Quality of Life Using ICT, IoT and AI (
HONET
), Marietta, GA, Dec. 19–21, pp. 1–6.10.1109/HONET56683.2022.10019175
5.
Ren
,
H.
,
Gu
,
X.
, and
Tan
,
K. L.
,
2016
, “
Human-Compliant Body-Attached Soft Robots Towards Automatic Cooperative Ultrasound Imaging
,” IEEE 20th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (
CSCWD
), Nanchang, China, May 4–6, pp.
653
658
.10.1109/CSCWD.2016.7566066
6.
Cianchetti
,
M.
,
Laschi
,
C.
,
Menciassi
,
A.
, and
Dario
,
P.
,
2018
, “
Biomedical Applications of Soft Robotics
,”
Nat. Rev. Mater.
,
3
(
6
), pp.
143
153
.10.1038/s41578-018-0022-y
7.
Yang
,
Y.
,
Li
,
Y.
, and
Chen
,
Y.
,
2018
, “
Principles and Methods for Stiffness Modulation in Soft Robot Design and Development
,”
Bio-Des. Manuf.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
14
25
.10.1007/s42242-018-0001-6
8.
Lindenroth
,
L.
,
Housden
,
R. J.
,
Wang
,
S.
,
Back
,
J.
,
Rhode
,
K.
, and
Liu
,
H.
,
2020
, “
Design and Integration of a Parallel, Soft Robotic End-Effector for Extracorporeal Ultrasound
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
67
(
8
), pp.
2215
2229
.10.1109/TBME.2019.2957609
9.
Banerjee
,
H.
,
Tse
,
Z. T. H.
, and
Ren
,
H.
,
2018
, “
Soft Robotics With Compliance and Adaptation for Biomedical Applications and Forthcoming Challenges
,”
Int. J. Robot. Autom.
,
33
(
1
), pp.
69
80
.10.2316/Journal.206.2018.1.206-4981
10.
Yang
,
Y.
, and
Jiao
,
P.
,
2023
, “
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Biomedical Soft Robots
,”
Mater. Today Adv.
,
17
, p.
100338
.10.1016/j.mtadv.2022.100338
11.
Kim
,
Y.
,
Cheng
,
S. S.
, and
Desai
,
J. P.
,
2015
, “
Towards the Development of a Spring-Based Continuum Robot for Neurosurgery
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
9415
, pp.
429
434
.10.1117/12.2082193
12.
Cui
,
X.
,
Chen
,
W.
,
Jin
,
X.
, and
Agrawal
,
S. K.
,
2017
, “
Design of a 7-Dof Cable-Driven Arm Exoskeleton (Carex-7) and a Controller for Dexterous Motion Training or Assistance
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
161
172
.10.1109/TMECH.2016.2618888
13.
Galiana
,
I.
,
Hammond
,
F. L.
,
Howe
,
R. D.
, and
Popovic
,
M. B.
,
2012
, “
Wearable Soft Robotic Device for Post-Stroke Shoulder Rehabilitation: Identifying Misalignments
,”
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
,
Vilamoura-Algarve, Portuga
, Oct. 7–12, pp.
317
322
.10.1109/IROS.2012.6385786
14.
Qian
,
S.
,
Zi
,
B.
,
Shang
,
W.-W.
, and
Xu
,
Q.-S.
,
2018
, “
A Review on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots
,”
Chin. J. Mech. Eng.
,
31
(
1
), pp.
1
11
.10.1186/s10033-018-0267-9
15.
Moghadam
,
A. A. A.
,
Kouzani
,
A.
,
Torabi
,
K.
,
Kaynak
,
A.
, and
Shahinpoor
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Development of a Novel Soft Parallel Robot Equipped With Polymeric Artificial Muscles
,”
Smart Mater. Struct.
,
24
(
3
), p.
035017
.10.1088/0964-1726/24/3/035017
16.
Papendorp
,
S.
,
Iyun
,
O.
,
Schneider
,
C.
,
Tekes
,
A.
,
Ashuri
,
T.
, and
Amiri Moghadam
,
A. A.
,
2022
, “
Development of 3D Printed Soft Pneumatic Hand Motion Sensors
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2022-94580.10.1115/IMECE2022-94580
17.
Garcia
,
M.
,
Pena
,
P.
,
Tekes
,
A.
, and
Moghadam
,
A. A. A.
,
2021
, “
Development of Novel Three-Dimensional Soft Parallel Robot
,”
SoutheastCon 2021
,
Atlanta, GA
, Dec., 20, pp.
1
6
.10.1109/SoutheastCon45413.2021.9401902
18.
Grace
,
D.
,
Lee-Ortiz
,
J.
,
Garcia
,
M.
,
Contreras-Esquen
,
A.
,
Tekes
,
A.
, and
Moghadam
,
A. A. A.
,
2022
, “
Development of a Novel Six Dof Soft Parallel Robot
,”
SoutheastCon 2022
,
Mobile, AL
, pp.
81
86
.10.1109/SoutheastCon48659.2022.9764135
19.
Abidoye
,
C.
,
Grace
,
D.
,
Contreras-Esquen
,
A.
,
Edwards
,
A.
,
Ashuri
,
T.
,
Tekes
,
A.
, and
Amiri Moghadam
,
A. A.
,
2022
, “
Development of a Novel 3-Universal-Spherical-Revolote Soft Parallel Robot
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2022-95235.10.1115/IMECE2022-95235
20.
Virgil Petrescu
,
R. V.
,
Aversa
,
R.
,
Apicella
,
A.
,
Mirsayar
,
M.
,
Kozaitis
,
S.
,
Abu-Lebdeh
,
T.
,
Petrescu
,
F. I. T.
, et al.,
2018
, “
Inverse Kinematics of a Stewart Platform
,”
J. Mechatron. Rob.
,
2
(
1
), pp.
45
59
.10.3844/jmrsp.2018.45.59
21.
Steele
,
S.
,
Rodriguez
,
J. D.
,
Sripathy
,
S.
,
Ashuri
,
T.
,
Gharaie
,
S.
,
Chang
,
Y.
, and
Moghadam
,
A. A. A.
,
2023
, “
Development of a Fish Robot Equipped With Novel 3D Printed Soft Bending Actuators
,”
SoutheastCon 2023
,
Orlando, FL
, Apr. 1–16, pp.
596
602
.10.1109/SoutheastCon51012.2023.10115181
You do not currently have access to this content.